1.) 
Pearl Harbor-The Pearl Harbor attack took
place on December 7, 1941, at the Pearl Harbor naval base near Honolulu,
Hawaii. It was a surprise attack from the Japanese a little before 8 a.m. that Sunday
morning. The U.S. was not prepared because they were confident that the
Japanese were going to attack someplace in the South Pacific. Almost 200 planes
(fighter, torpedo, and bombers) attacked Pearl Harbor. More than 2,400 U.S.
civilians and soldiers were killed and 1,000 were injured. The day after the
attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced that the U.S. was declaring
war on Japan.

 

?      History.com Staff. “Pearl
Harbor.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009,
www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/pearl-harbor.

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2.) 
The Marshall Plan- In June of 1947, Secretary
of State, George Marshall, released a plan that would provide aid to European
countries, as well as the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet Union did not
participate and they stopped Poland and Czechoslovakia from participating as
well. This plan is called The Marshall Plan, also known as the European
Recovery Program. The Economic Cooperation Administration was approved by
Congress in April, this administration would oversee The Marshall Plan.
Throughout the next three years, they aided $13 billion to Europe, which helped
to jumpstart their economy.

 

?      History.com Staff. “Marshall
Plan.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009,
www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/marshall-plan.

?     
Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: Volume 2 from 1865,
Brinkley, 8th edition.

 

3.) 
American Indian Movement- The American Indian Movement
or, AIM, was founded in 1968 by a group of Indians. Later on, Russell Means
joined and became the main spokesman for the group. Their first goal was to
help Indians who had been placed ghettos as a result of government programs.
They eventually started to fight for the many problems that American Indians
faced. For example, they fought for their protection of legal rights and restoring
their illegally seized land. They were involved in some of the most highly
broadcasted protests. The American Indian Movement produced some victories. In
1968, Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act. This act granted Native
Americans full protection by the Bill of Rights. During the mid-1970s, they
focused on the excessive use of resources of Indian land. However, with many
leaders in prison and disagreements within the group, the group disbanded in
1978.

 

?      The Editors of Encyclopædia
Britannica. “American Indian Movement.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia
Britannica, inc., 20 July 1998,
www.britannica.com/topic/American-Indian-Movement.

4.) 
Robert F. Kennedy- Robert F. Kennedy was born
in Brookline, Massachusetts on November 20, 1925. He served in the military
from 1946 to 1948 and after that, graduated from Harvard. He then attended law
school at the University of Virginia and graduated in 1951. The same year he
earned his degree, he started working as a lawyer in the U.S. Department of
Justice. He was made attorney general in 1960 after his brother John Kennedy
was elected President. While in this position, he focused on fighting organized
crime and was an advocate for civil rights for African Americans. When his
brother was assassinated in 1963, he resigned from his position of attorney
general and ran for a senate seat. In 1968, Kennedy was running for President
against Eugene McCarthy. But on June 6,1968, Robert F. Kennedy was shot at the
Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

 

?      History.com Staff. “Robert F.
Kennedy.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/robert-f-kennedy.

 

5.) 
The Holocaust- The word Holocaust comes
from the Greek word holokauston, which
means a burnt sacrifice to God. However, since 1945, this word has taken on a
different meaning when 6 million European Jews, along with other minorities,
were mass murdered during WWII. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler came to power on
January 30, 1933 as the chancellor of Germany. Hitler believed that Jews were
an inferior race. The start of many years of abuse to Jews started with the
boycotting of Jewish businesses. Then, Jews could not attend German schools.
Hitler’s “Final Solution” was to imprison the Jews in concentration camps
throughout Poland. The first concentration camp opened in March of 1933 and
mostly took Communists prisoner. By July of 1933, the concentration camps held
almost 27,000 people. Starting with the sick, old and young, they started
moving people from the ghettos to the concentration camps. During the last
months of the war, they started moving the inmates by train or by foot, or
“death marches” in order to prevent a possible liberation of the camp from the
Allies. On May 7, 1945, the Germans surrendered to the Allies. In the end, more
than 6 million Jews were murdered.

 

?      History.com Staff. “The
Holocaust.” History.com, A Television Networks, 2009,
www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-holocaust.

?     
Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: Volume 2 from 1865,
Brinkley, 8th edition.

 

6.) 
Japanese Internment-  After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the
U.S. made it seem as if the Japanese living in the U.S. were trying to sabotage
the war. There was not a big presence of Japanese Americans, roughly about
127,000 that lived in the West Coast. In February of 1942, President Roosevelt
signed Executive Order 9066, which forced all Japanese-Americans who lived on
the West Coast to evacuate and relocate to internment camps. There were ten
internment camps located in Arizona, California, Colorado, Arkansas, Idaho,
Utah, and Wyoming. Many people were forced to sell or abandon their homes and
shops. They were forced to spend three years in camps that deprived them of
decent healthcare, employment, and schools. At the start of 1945, the
Japanese-Americans who showed undeniable loyalty could return home. However, it
was in March of 1946 that the last camp had closed. In 1948, there was a law
that gave the interned people reimbursement for the properties they had lost.
But it was not until 1988 that Congress gave payments of up to $20,000 for each
survivor.

?     
History.com Staff. “Japanese Internment Camps.” History.com,
A Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation.

?      Brinkley, Alan. The
unfinished nation: Volume 2 from 1865, Brinkley, 8th edition.

 

7.)   Brown
v. Board of Education- In the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson, the supreme court ruled that racial segregation
was legal, as long as the separate places for blacks and whites were equal. In
1951, Oliver Brown filed a suit against the Board of Education of Topeka
because his daughter was denied entry to an all-white elementary school. He
argued that the black school was not equal to the white school, and that
segregation violated the 14th Amendment. In 1954, the Court combined multiple
cases regarding racial segregation in schools into one case with the name, Brown v. Board of Education. The
Supreme Court’s final ruling was that the segregation of public schools by race
was unconstitutional. A year later, the Court made a decision called Brown II,
that provided rules for the order given in 1954. It stated that communities had
to work together to desegregate schools, the only flaws were that it set no
time limit. Over 100 southern members of Congress disagreed with this ruling
and signed a document that declared their boycotting of the Brown decision. At the end of 1957, only
684 schools out of 3,000 in the South had begun to desegregate. In September of
1957, the Eisenhower administration felt compelled to step in and the Federal
courts demanded the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock,
Arkansas.

 

·       History.com Staff. “Brown v.
Board of Education.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka.

·       Brinkley, Alan. The
unfinished nation: Volume 2 from 1865, Brinkley, 8th edition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay #2- Consider racial minorities
and women in the United States during World War II. Which groups made notable
gains, and which did not? Please explain your answer fully. 

 

          During WWII, racial minorities and
women were given many opportunities for change. African Americans, Native
Americans, Mexicans, and women all made progress because of the war. However,
Native Americans made some progress but did not gain much from the war.

 

There were about 25,000 Native Americans that served
in the Military during WWII. Many fought in the war and some of them were “code
talkers”, who spoke their own language over the phones and radios so that the
enemy could not understand them. However, their involvement in the war led to
them being in contact with “white society” and some did not return home after
the war. During the war, the reservations were negatively impacted. There was
little to no war work and the Government subsidies diminished. Many young and
talented people left to help in the war, so there were many work shortages on
the reservations. Before the war, the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was
passed. This was made to help decrease the amount of the governments presence
in Native American affairs.

 

For African Americans, the war offered many opportunities
for change. Because of a great need for workers in war plants, many African
Americans traveled up from the South. This gave many poor African Americans the
chance to get out of poverty. However, this created some tension that
eventually led to violence. And in Detroit in 1943, a riot broke out and killed
34 people and 25 of them were black. Even though there was tension, the many
black organizations were trying their hardest to fight segregation. The
Congress of Racial Equality or, CORE, was founded towards the end of the war,
and was one of the leading black activist organizations at the time. Even
though there was a significant number of African Americans that were serving in
the war, segregation was still present among the armed forces. They gave African
Americans menial jobs kept them in different training camps and even different
training units. However, in 1942, President Truman issued the executive order
that would desegregate all armed forces. By the end of the war, there were more
than 700,000 African Americans serving.

 

At the start of the war, large amounts of Mexican
workers were coming to the U.S. because of shortages in labor workers. In 1942,
both the Mexican and American governments agreed to a deal that would allow laborer’s
to be permitted into the U.S. to work, but only for a limited amount of time. Many
of them were able to find jobs in factories, while others found work at farms. The
war gave many Mexican Immigrants the chance to start families in the U.S. and
have their children be citizens. But with the flow of immigrants coming in,
they were subject to harsh discrimination. Women also made very important achievements
during WWII. The number of women working changed drastically after the start of
the war, going from 12 million to 18.6 million. They were taking over the jobs
that men formerly occupied, but were still facing discrimination. The struggle
was when the men came home, the women were expected to give up their jobs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Indian-Reorganization-Act