1.    
Searching for
Allies (1947-1953)

Ø Foundations of
Foreign Policy (Burma, France,
US and Australia)

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Ø  Relations with
India (the early years
of independence were dominated by Pakistan’s problems with India on the one
hand, and the efforts to introduce the new state to the world community on the
other)

Ø  Relations with
Afghanistan (Soviet
Union extended a similar support to Afghanistan in retaliation to Pakistan’s
participation in US sponsored defence pacts).

Ø  Security
Imperatives (The
security imperatives led the policy makers to pay special attention to the
reorganization of the armed forces that Pakistan inherited after the division
of the British Indian military).

Ø  Relations with
USA and USSR (Pakistan
started with and independent foreign policy and cultivated relations with
United States, the Soviet Union, and China).

Ø  Relation with
Muslim Countries (
Cordial relations with Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia)

2.     Alignment
with West (1953-1962)

Ø Alignment with
West (US and Soviet
Union)

Ø  Mutual Defence
Assistance Agreement (A
formal Turkey-Pakistan Agreement was signed in April 1954, followed by a Mutual
Defence Assistance Agreement between the United States and Pakistan in May)

Ø SEATO (In September 1954, Pakistan joined
the South East Asia Treaty Organization or the Manila Pact).

Ø  The Baghdad
Pact/CENTO (In September
1955 Pakistan joined the Baghdad Pact)

Ø  Defence and
Economic Assistance from the US (A bilateral agreement of Cooperation was signed between
Pakistan and the United States in 1959)

Ø  Cost of
Alignment with the West (The
alignment with the West was not cost-free. Pakistan’s independent foreign
policy was compromised and the prospects for improvement of its relations with
the Soviet Union suffered heavily)

Ø  Relations with
China (Pakistan
maintained a safe distance from China and its policy on the seating of China in
the UN wavered).

3.     Transition
(1962-1971)

Ø  Rethinking about
the Alignment Policy (Pakistan’s
policy-makers began a review of their alignment with the US in the early 60’s
as strains manifested in their relations.

Ø  Improving
Relations with the Soviet Union (Disappointed by the change in the US policy, the Pakistani
leaders decided to review Pakistan’s alignment with the West.

Ø Improving
Relations with China (Pakistan
relations with China improved more rapidly during the same period).

Ø  Diminishing Ties
with the US (The United
States was unhappy over Pakistan’s efforts to improve its relations with the
Soviet Union and China)

Ø  Pluralistic
Perspective (Pakistan,
thus moved away from the policy of alignment with the West to an independent
and pluralist perspective on foreign relations).

Ø  Relations with
India (Pakistan’s
relations with India continued to be characterized by the conflicting national
aspirations and mutual distrust).

Ø  Crisis in East
Pakistan an International Response. (The Soviets were disappointed by Pakistan’s response to the
Asian Collective Security Plan which brought about a degree of restraint in
their interaction with Pakistan).

4.     Bilateralism
and Nonalignment (1972-1979)

Ø  Pak-India
Relations: towards improvement (The most perplexing problem faced by Pakistan during this period related
to the issues and problems arising out of the period related to the issues and
problems arising out of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, resulting in the breakup of
East Pakistan and its establishment as an independent state). 

Ø  Strengthening of
Ties with Major Powers (Pakistan’s
relations with the major powers continued to be based on bilateralism and
mutuality of interests).

Ø  Nuclear
Technology and Relations with the US (Sharp difference arose between Pakistan and the US when in
1976, Pakistan entered into an agreement with France to acquire a nuclear
reprocessing plant).

Ø  Pakistan and the
Muslim World (Pakistan
relations with the Muslim states, particularly the states of the Middle East,
touched new heights of cordiality and trust).

5.     Afghanistan
and the Partnership with US (1980-90)

Ø  Soviet Invasion
of Afghanistan (The
Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan on December 27, 1979 was an event
of far-racing geo-political ramifications.)

Ø  Revival of
Pakistan-US Relations (The
Afghanistan war proved a turning point in Pakistan-US relations which moved
from the lowest point of 1979 to close political).

Ø  Pakistan China
Relations (Pakistan
China relations maintained their steady march towards greater cordiality and a
wide ranging cooperation in various fields)

Ø Pakistan and the
OIC (Pakistan maintained
cordial relations with the Muslim states which extended support at the
bilateral level and through the OIC to Pakistan on the Afghanistan issue).

Ø  Pakistan-India a
policy of Dialogues (Pakistan
India relations were marked by the simultaneous pursuance of positive and
negative interaction).

Ø  The Geneva
Accords on Afghanistan (The
search from a negotiated settlement of the Afghanistan crisis proved a long
drawn affair).

Ø  Post-withdrawal
Problems (The post
withdrawal problems, especially an intra-Afghan settlement, haunted the
interested parties to the Afghanistan crisis)

6.     Post-Cold War
Era and Pakistan’s Dilemmas (1990-2001)

Ø  Another Drift in
Pak-US Relations (Pakistan
faced hard choices in the early 1992’s. The US was no longer willing to
underwrite Pakistan’s economic development and modernization of its military
because Pakistan had lost its strategic relevance for US)

Ø Continuation of
the Afghanistan Problem (The
Afghanistan problem continued to haunt Pakistan during these years).

Ø  Insurgence in
Kashmir (The outbreak of
insurgency in Indian administered Kashmir in 1989 to the Kashmir Problem).

Ø  Going Nuclear (The last major development in this
phase was the decision of India and Pakistan to become over nuclear powers).

7.     Counter
Terrorism (2001-2004)

Ø September 11 and
Fight Against Terrorism (The terrorist attacks in the US had such far reaching
implications for the international system that one can talk of international
politics in terms of before and after the terrorist attacks)

Ø Increased US
Support (The US reciprocated by withdrawing three categories of economic
sanctions against Pakistan in 2001vand took steps to revive bilateral relation
in various fields of mutual interest).

Ø Detente with
India (Pakistan’s relations with India witnessed ups and downs against the
backdrop of the terrorist attacks in the US)

Ø Pakistan’s
Relations with China and Russia (Pakistan’s interaction with China expanded
rapidly for Gawadar Port. Russian concern pertained to the reported linkages
between the dissident elements in Chechnya and the militant Islamic groups
based in Pakistan and Afghanistan)

 

Ø Muslim World and
Pakistan (Pakistan maintained cordial interaction with the Muslim states,
especially those located in the Gulf region).