2.1 INTRODUCTION OF FLIGHT SIMULATOR

Simulation in general holds the definition of showing
visually, experience physically, and aurally hears a designated situation by
using nature, technology in engineering, and capabilities as a limitation
excluding the cost of having literal damage to test subject, structure, health
and physical state of human being. Simulation is important because of several
reasons:

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? Training
purposes,

? Testing an
integrity of a product and or structure, and

? To develop
in detail a new design of aircraft

? To study
in advance the characteristic of an aircraft

 

Based on the definition from Technopedia.com, a flight
simulator is a virtual reality system capable of simulating the environment of
a flying machine for a pilot. Flight simulators are largely used for pilot
training or for recreation/gaming, but can also be used to research aircraft
characteristics, control handling characteristics, design and development of
aircraft.

 

For its uses, the flight simulator helps in
artificially recreating the aircraft flight environment for pilot training,
design or other purposes. The main purpose of a flight simulator is to help the
pilot to achieve, test and maintain proficiency in handling airplane operation
without involving any risk to property or lives, and at a much lower cost than
training in the air. A simple flight simulator system consists of multiple
displays, control devices, an audio system for communications and a computer
system to process control inputs and record flight data. There are two types of
flight simulators in the current market, Professional Flight Simulator and
Personal Flight Simulator. The first type of flight simulator usually uses for
pilot training purpose and for professional training in aviation industry while
the last one is for personal uses example like for amateur training, gaming,
and other purposes.

Figure
2.1.1 Professional Flight Simulator

(https://www.activeczech.com/airbus-a320-flight-simulator)

Figure 2.1.2
Personal Flight Simulator

(https://www.hammacher.com/product/default.aspx?sku=11803)

 

            Nowadays, computer or graphic
processor flight simulator programs have become the highest selling software
after business applications. But you could only experience the virtual reality
(VR) flight simulator through location based centres where you pay by hour or
even minutes to fly their very expensive hydraulic simulator. If you had a lot
of money or worked for the airlines, only then you can experience that. This is
become the reason to the civilian to have their own PC for flight simulator
programs that is more affordable and inexpensive.

This project was
come out considering the several aspects of price, efficiency and the purpose
of flight simulator for students. This 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) Flight
Simulator Platform make used of the basic concept of flight simulator. This
project is made so that the students can feel the plane banking, rolling,
cranking and yawing around the sky which means it provides freedom of movement.
In this project, three basic flight movements will be simulated which is:

1.     ROLL
MOTION

2.     YAW
MOTION

3.     PITCH
MOTION

 

In order to provide unconditional safety and
reliable operation for flight crew themselves, passengers including infants and
goods during flight, simulations mechanism are used by future pilots as
unofficial training purposes and as a basic platform for flight fundamentals
understanding. There are several procedures available to imitate near-real
flying condition such as:

? Operation of take-off,

? Operation of final approach or landing,

? Operation of cruising,

? Operation during the occurrence of weather abnormalities, and

? Operation of any emergency situations

 

Generally, aircraft flew with the use of focused engineering to provide
movement control of three axis. The basic three are:

? Roll,

? Pitch, and

? Yaw

The axis operational
theory can be summarized as Degree of Freedom (DOF).

2.1.1 Degree Of Freedom (DOF)

            In
order to experiences a physically altered motion. It is important to understand
the basic on how an object is moving around by applying forces upon it.   

Figure 2.1.3 Six
Degrees Of Freedom

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_degrees_of_freedom)

            Above image show six degrees of
freedom. Alterations of motions for simulator are result of imitations from
real world operations. Object as it is having unlimited 360 degrees in all
direction of moving. As been archive, there are three linear motion and three
related translation of it, resulting the total motion available are six. Six
are the highest degree of motions that can be provided with any Full Flight
Simulator (FFS) or Cockpit procedure Training (CPT) available nowadays that
have been certified by both Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and European
Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).

 

 

“U.S Federal
Aviation Authorities (NAA) and the European Safety Agency (EASA), certify each
category of simulators and test individual simulators within the approved
categories” (NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA, Flight Simulator, 1 November 2013).
Both of linear and motion translations movements works independently or in respect of each other in case of specially introduce
forces for basic aircraft operation. All of the six motions can only be usable
by overcoming forces acting on aircraft.

 

Figure 2.1.4 Acting Force On Aircraft

(http://www.cfinotebook.net/notebook/aerodynamics-and-performance/aircraft-stability)

Above
image show the 4 acting forces on aircraft.

Linear
motions can be listed as below:

·      
Forward and backward

·      
Up and down

·      
Left and right

 

Three
linear motions translation:

·      
Pitch up and pitch down

·      
Roll left and roll
right

·      
Yawing

 

If probable
methods of aircraft maneuvering presence, certain motions will be available
such as:

?
Surge (Longitudinal)

?
Sway (Lateral)

?
Heave (Vertical)

Pitch
Up and Pitch Down

The
motions of moving up and down by controlling the oscillation of aircraft.
Rotation of lateral axis.

Roll Left and Roll Right

The motion of directing an aircraft by turning over.
Rotation of longitudinal axis.

Yaw

The oscillation motion on vertical axis.

 

 

 

2.1.2 Hydraulic
Actuator

A hydraulic actuator consists of a cylinder or fluid
motor that uses hydraulic power to facilitate mechanical operation. The
mechanical motion gives an output in terms of linear, rotary or oscillatory
motion. Because liquids are nearly impossible to compress, a hydraulic actuator
can exert considerable force. The hydraulic cylinder consists of a hollow
cylindrical tube along which a piston can slide. The term single acting is used
when the fluid pressure is applied to just one side of the piston. The piston
can move in only one direction, a spring being frequently used to give the
piston a return stroke. The term double acting is used when pressure is applied
on each side of the piston; any difference in pressure between the two sides of
the piston moves the piston to one side or the other.

Type
of Hydraulic Actuator:

1.     Linear
Actuator

a.      Single
acting cylinder

·      
Double acting cylinder

·      
Double rod cylinder

2.     Rotary
Actuator

a.      Rotary
vane actuator

b.     Rack
and pinion actuator

·      
Single cylinder rack
and pinion actuator

·      
Double cylinder rack
and pinion actuator

Figure
2.1.5 Linear hydraulic type of actuator

(http://www.hydraulicspneumatics.com/fluid-power-basics/motors-actuators)

 

2.1.3      
Pneumatic
Actuator

A pneumatic control valve actuator converts energy
(typically in the form of compressed air)
into mechanical motion. The motion can be rotary or linear, depending on the
type of actuator. A Pneumatic
actuator mainly consists of a piston or a diaphragm which develops the motive power. It keeps the
air in the upper portion of the cylinder, allowing air pressure to force the
diaphragm or piston to move the valve stem or rotate the valve control element.

Valves require little pressure to operate and usually
double or triple the
input force. The larger the size of the piston, the larger the output pressure
can be. Having a larger piston can also be good if air supply is low, allowing
the same forces with less input. These pressures are large enough to crush
objects in the pipe. On 100 kPa input, you could lift a small car (upwards of
1,000 lbs) easily, and this is only a basic, small pneumatic valve.
However, the resulting forces required of the stem would be too great and cause
the valve stem to
fail.

This pressure is transferred to the valve stem, which
is connected to either the valve plug. Larger forces are required in high
pressure or high flow pipelines to allow the valve to overcome these forces,
and allow it to move the valves moving parts to control the material flowing
inside.

The valves input is the “control signal.”
This can come from a variety of measuring devices, and each different pressure
is a different set point for a valve. A typical standard signal is 20–100 kPa.
For example, a valve could be controlling the pressure in a vessel which has a
constant out-flow, and a varied in-flow (varied by the actuator and valve). A
pressure transmitter will monitor the pressure in the vessel and transmit a
signal from 20–100 kPa. 20 kPa means there is no pressure, 100 kPa means there
is full range pressure (can be varied by the transmitters calibration points).
As the pressure rises in the vessel, the output of the transmitter rises, this
increase in pressure is sent to the valve, which causes the valve to stroke
downward, and start closing the valve, decreasing flow into the vessel,
reducing the pressure in the vessel as excess pressure is evacuated through the
out flow. This is called a direct acting process.

 

Type of Pneumatic Actuator

1.    
Tie rod
cylinders

2.    
Rotary actuators

3.    
Grippers

4.    
Rodless
actuators with magnetic linkage or rotary cylinders

5.    
Rodless
actuators with mechanical linkage

6.    
Pneumatic
artificial muscles

7.    
Speciality
actuators that combine rotary and linear motion—frequently used for clamping
operations

8.    
Vacuum
generators

Figure 2.1.6 Type of Pneumatic Actuator

(http://www.stoneleigh-eng.com/pneumatic_actuators.html)

 

2.1.4      
Electric
Actuator

An electric actuator is powered by a motor that
converts electrical energy into mechanical torque. The electrical energy is
used to actuate equipment such as multi-turn valves. It is one of the cleanest
and most readily available forms of actuator because it does not directly
involve oil or other fossil fuels. Electric actuators are more
cost-effective than their hydraulic and pneumatic counterparts. Electric
actuators benefit from cleaner, simpler, and more energy-efficient power
transmission. Electric actuator integration is easier with programmable
controls, and maintenance is minimized with no parts replacement or lubrication
needed except in extreme conditions.

Industrial Linear Actuators are electric actuator
products that operate in typical open loop applications powered by 12, 24, 36
VDC or 115, 230, 400 VAC. A linear actuator is excellent for agricultural,
construction, mining and industrial equipment to control seats, hoods, doors,
covers, throttles and many other devices. linear actuators are ideal for
medical, health and fitness, office and entertainment, and marine equipment.

Type of Electrical Actuator

1.     Inline
actuator

2.     Parallel
straight line actuator

3.     Parallel
worm gear and flexible motor mount actuator

4.     Perpendicular
worm gear 90 degrees actuator

5.     Perpendicular
worm and spur gear combo actuator

Figure 2.1.7 Type of linear electric actuator

(https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/how-to-decide-between-a-pneumatic-and-an-electric-actuator)

 

2.1.5      
Electric
Motor

An electric motor is an electrical
machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of
this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done
by an electric generator, which has much in common with a motor. Most electric
motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor’s magnetic
field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as
in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry,
electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical
energy into electric power.

Found in applications as diverse as
industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power
tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC)
sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by
alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or
generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches.

 General-purpose motors with highly standardized
dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for
industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion,
pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100
megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type,
internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on.

Electric motors are used to produce
linear or rotary force (torque), and should be distinguished from devices such
as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but
do not generate usable mechanical powers, which are respectively referred to as
actuators and transducers.

Figure 2.1.8 Electric
Motor

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.6      
Control
System

          Control System will work independently once
programmed and pilot can access easily the simulator with plug-in method to
connect all the components of simulator. The components falls under control
system:

? 12V Adapter

? Arduino Microcontroller

? Power Supply 12V40A

? Electric Actuator

             To power up the system 12V
Directing Current (DC) is used. Other than that, which offer the function of
processing commands and calculate it to have specific voltage value to send
directly to Pulse with Modulation (PWM). Pulse with Modulation offers the
designated characteristic of generating previously received value from digital
source to analogue voltage.

Process

.

               In sequence, starting from
having a computer or otherwise technically known as graphic processing device The
Personal Computer (PC) will need to be installed with flight simulator
software. There are plenty of finely detailed flight simulators software such
as:

 

 

 

a. Flight Simulator X                                                                       
b. X plane

                                                                                              

                       

 

Figure

  Figure 2.1.9 Flight
Simulator X                                        Figure
2.1.10 X Plane Software

Above images taken from store. Steampowered.com and
the next right image taken from (flyawaysimulation.com).

 

It is possible to have a basic PC to run flight
simulator software but those who demands a much more flight experience, the
data of flight simulator must be send continuously to Control System (Arduino).
Data’s sent contain several information such as precisely scaled data that
already converted into specific coordinates. The coordinates are still in
digital form. The data received by Arduino microcontroller will process the
commands and calculate it to have specific voltage value. The voltage values
processed by Arduino are sent to PWM to generate analogue type of signal. The
direct voltage will be powering motor driver. As known, motor driver will move
the window motor. Window 16 power will move the pivoting point of Secondary and
Tertiary structure of our project. This process will work continuously as the
system receives pending input from pilot.

(INSTRUCTABLES, Arduino-Pneumatic Flight Simulator,
dnicky2288, nd)

 

 

2.1.7      
Gear Transmission

A transmission is
a machine in a power transmission
system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term
transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to
provide speed and torque conversions
from a rotating power source to another devices .  

In this project, we will use DC motor with Driver gear to transmit
movement to the rotation tire by connecting to follower gear that attached to
tire. The motor will receive input from arduino

Figure 2.1.11 the motor
works on driver gear to follower gear

(https://bricks.stackexchange.com/questions/2906/how-can-i-controll-the-speed-of-motor-using-gears)

2.1.8       
SIM TOOLS

“Sim tools is designed to be a simple set of tools
that work together to get motion simulators up and running as fast as possible
while still giving the user all of the customization’s and flexibility they may
need.” (RENE HERMENAU, 2013).
From the statement above, there is another interface that can use as the
interface for the flight simulator to get motion for the flight simulator. This
is another interface that can be used to move our flight simulator. For a 3
degree of freedom (DOF) there are only need two interface for uses an Arduino
board which is able to drive 3 actuators, as for the 3 DOF Flight Simulator
Platform use Electric actuator to move 3 motion that is roll, pitch and yawing,
by using the Arduino that connect with USB cable. Arduino will connect to the
windows and sim tools will send the concatenated of axis 1 and axis 2 to the 19
Arduino. Arduino will dispatch the data sending Axis 1 orders to Actuator 1,
Axis 2 to Actuator 2 and Axis 3 to Actuator 3.

Figure 2.1.12 Example of Setup for Arduino.

(https://www.xsimulator.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/arduino.png
)

 

2.1.9 Motor Driver

A motor driver is a little current amplifier; the
function of motor drivers is to take a low-current control signal and then turn
it into a higher-current signal that can drive a motor. There are many
application of motor driver such as:

? Relay and solenoid switching

?
Stepping motor

?
LED and incandescent displays

?
Automotive applications

?
Audio-visual equipment

?
PC Peripherals

?
Car audios

?
Car navigation systems

 

 

 

So, in this project, motor driver are used to send an
input to the electric actuator before the actuator move to give motion to the
secondary structure. The motor driver will get the input from the Arduino.

Figure 2.1.13 Example of motor driver

(https://www.cytron.com.my/p-mo-pw-l
)

2.1.10 Carbon Steel

        Steel will be used as the major
structure of the flight simulator construction. It will use as the platform
structure that carried the 70 kg weight of the person in this project. Steel is
lightweight and good in strength.  Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile
strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings,
infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.

Iron is the base metal
of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms),
body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its
temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in
the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center
of each of the six faces of the cube. It is the interaction of the allotropes
of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast
iron their range of unique properties.

In pure iron, the
crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping
past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed.
In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron
act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are
common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.