The synthesis of these VACNT films was carried
out using a microwave plasma chamber as well as a substrate composed of
titanium covered by Iron (deposited using e-beam evaporator). The iron was then
treated with plasma N2/H2 in order to promote the formation of nanoclusters
before which polar groups were incorporated onto the ends of the nanotubes
(using pulse-direct current plasma reactor and oxygen). After the nanotubes
where properly synthesized, they were then allowed to soak in simulated body
fluid which mimicked the conditions of the human body relative to pH,
temperature, and chemical components. Once removed from incubation, the
apatites where observed using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy.

           

Scientists concluded that the polar
groups (specifically COOH) attached to the ends of the tubes permitted the cell
adhesion. The other factor that made these nanotubes favorable biomineralization
components is the large amount of sites that are available for attachment,
which subsequently favors the growth of new cells. The adhesion properties
specifically enhanced the binding of osteoblasts. These findings reveal the potential use of carbon
nanotubes as biological repair factors such as tissue and bone. These
properties demonstrate the great potential of carbon nanotubes in

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