Abstract:
Nowadays, Network topology plays the essential role in network for connecting the
system. Topologies are designed for both small and large networks and required
different types of building these networks based on their essentials. In this
paper, I will discuss about how the network topology types and their functions by
analyzing and comparing them each other. Finally, I will make comparison table
and determine which one is the best for network system of all the
topologies. 

Keywords: Network topology, Physical Network
Topology, Logical Network Topology, Bus, Ring, Star, Mesh, Hybrid and Tree
Topologies.

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I.

INTRODCTION: Network topology is the schematic
description of a network layout arrangement’s connections, including the
various links
of computer networks, nodes (sender
and receiver) and so on. There are two main types of network topologies. They
are the physical topology and the logical topology. The physical topology
of a network is the physical geometric layout’s design of a network including
the devices, locations and cables.The
logical topology is about how data actually moves around in the network, and it
relates to the nature of the path of a signal which follows from one node to
another. (Groth, 2005)

II. ANALYSIS OF
DIFFERENT NETWORK TOPOLOGIES-Physical TOPOLOGY

Physical network topologies emphasize system-related hardware, including
workstations, remote terminals, servers, and related lines of connection
between assets. The physical topology describes how the systems are physically
connected. This means arranging the devices on the network system through the
actual cables that carry the data. There are six basic topologies. (Santra, 2013)

A.   
BUS Topology

The bus networks share
a common connection that extends to every computers and network devices. Every
computers and network devices are connected to the same single cable in a small
network. If the cable fails, the
entire network will automatically shut down, but the cost of establishing the
network is reasonable so that this type of networking is
economical and cost effective. However, the length of the connection cable is limited and the network is slower
than the ring network. (Mitchell, 2017)

  i.     
Features
of Bus Topology

(1)     
It transmits data only
in one direction.

(2)     
Every device is connected to a single
cable.

(3)     
It has exactly two endpoints and it is
also called Linear Bus topology.

ii.      Advantages of Bus Topology

(1)     
It is cost effective.

(2)     
The least amount of cabling is required
to other network topologies.

(3)     
It is used in the small networks.

(4)     
It is easy to understand.

(5)     
Easy to deploy connecting two cables
together.

iii.      Disadvantages of Bus Topology

(1)     
Cables fails then the
entire network will fail.

(2)     
If network traffic is large or there are many nodes, the network performance is
degraded.

(3)     
Cable length is limited.

(4)     
It is slower than the ring topology.

B.          
RING Topology

A ring network is connected to two other network
devices and the last network device is needed to connect first to form a ring
network. Each message propagates in one direction either clockwise or
counterclockwise (anticlockwise), then through the shared link. A ring topology
connecting a large number of network devices requires repeaters. If a connecting cable or a device fails in the
ring, the entire network will automatically fail. The ring networks are faster
than the bus networks however they are more difficult to troubleshoot. (Mitchell, 2017)

i.     
Features
of Ring Topology

(1)  
Transmission
is unidirectional and it is also known as Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, with opposite data flows.
Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup to keep the
network alive.

(2)  
Data is transmitted in a sequential
manner that is bit by bit. The
transmitted data must pass through each node of the network up to the
destination node.

ii.   
Advantages
of Ring Topology

(1)  
Transmitting network is
not affected by high traffic or adding more nodes because only the nodes with
the tokens can transmit data.

(2)  
Cheap to installation and expansion.

iii.  
Disadvantages
of Ring Topology

(1)  
Troubleshooting in ring
topology is difficult.

(2)  
Adding, removing or deleting the
computers can disturb the network activity.

(3)  
Failure of a single node can cause the
entire network to fail.

C.   
STAR Topology

Star
topology usually uses a network hub or switch, and is a common home network.
Each device has its own connection to the hub. The performance of a star
network depends on the hub. In the event of a hub failure, the network of all
connected devices is shut down. In this type of topology, all computers are
cabled to a hub. This center is the central node, and all other nodes are
connected to the central node. The performance of attached devices is usually
high because in other types of networks there are usually fewer connected
devices in the star topology. Star network is easy to set up, easy to
troubleshoot. Setting costs is higher than bus and ring network topologies, but
if one connected device fails, the other connected devices are not affected. (Mitchell, 2017)

i      
Features of Star Topology

(1)  
Each node has its own
dedicated connection to the hub.

(2)  
Hub acts as a data flow repeater.

(3)  
Can use twisted pair, optical Fiber or
coaxial cable.

ii     
Advantages
of Star Topology

(1)  
Less
nodes, low network traffic, fast performance.

(2)  
Hub can be easily upgraded.

(3)  
Easy to troubleshoot.

(4)  
Easy to set and modify.

(5)  
Only
if the node is affected, it will work normally.

iii   
Disadvantages
of Star Topology

(1)  
The installation cost
is high.

(2)  
Expensive to use.

(3)  
If the hub fails, the entire network
will stop because all the nodes depend on the hub.

(4)  
Performance is hub-based that is it
depends on its capacity.

D.   
MESH Topology

Mesh network topology provides redundant
communication paths between some or all of the devices in some or all mesh
networks. In full mesh topology, each device is connected to all the other
devices. In some mesh topologies,
some connected devices or systems connect to all other devices, but some
devices connect to only a few other devices. Mesh topology robust,
troubleshooting is relatively easy. However, the installation and configuration
is more complicated than the star, ring, and bus topologies. This is a
point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All network nodes are
connected to each other. There are two technologies for transmitting data in
Mesh topologies:

Routing-In routing, nodes have
routing logic based on network requirements. Like routing logic, use the
shortest distance to direct the data to its destination or it have routing
logic for disconnecting the link information and avoid these nodes and the
like.

Flooding-In flooding, the same data
is transmitted to all network nodes, so no routing logic is needed. The network
is robust and less likely to lose data. But this can lead to unnecessary load
on the network.

Types
of Mesh Topology

1.              
Partial Mesh Topology: In this topology
some systems are connected in the same way as mesh topology however some
devices are connected to only two or three devices.

2.              
Full Mesh Topology: Each node or device is connected
to each other. (Mitchell, 2017)

i      
Features
of Mesh Topology

(1)   Fully connected

(2)  
Steady.

(3)  
Not flexible.

ii     
Advantages
of Mesh Topology

(1)    Each
connection can carry its own data load

(2)    It
is robust.

(3)    Easy to diagnose the problem.

(4)    Provides
safety and privacy.

iii   
Disadvantages of Mesh
Topology

(1)  
Installation and
configuration difficulties.

(2)  
Wiring
costs higher.

(3)  
Bulk wiring is
required.

E.    
TREE Topology

Tree topology
combines star and bus topologies to improve network scalability. The network is
set up as a hierarchy, usually at least three levels. The underlying device is
connected to its upper layer device. Ultimately, all devices will be directed
to the main hub that controls the network. This type of network is for
companies that have a variety of packet workstations. The system is easy to
manage and troubleshoot. However, the establishment costs are relatively high.
If the center hub fails, the network will automatically fail. It has a root
node to which all other nodes connect to form a hierarchy. It is also known as
a hierarchical topology. It should have at least three levels of hierarchy. (Mitchell, 2017)

i      
Features of Tree
Topology

(1)  
The ideal workstation is in the group.

(2)  
WAN use.

ii     
Advantages
of Tree Topology

(1)   Extension
of bus and star topologies.

(2)   Expansion
of nodes is possible and easy.

(3)   Easily
managed and maintained.

(4)   Error
detection is easily done.

iii   
Disadvantages
of Tree Topology

(1)  
Overall
length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.

(2)  
Expensive.

(3)  
If
adding more node maintenance is difficult.

(4)  
 If the center hub failure, the network will
failure.

F.    
HYBRID Topology

Hybrid topology is a mixture of two or more topologies.
For example, if a ring topology is used in one department’s office and use in
another star topology, connecting these topologies will result in a hybrid topology
(ring topology and star topology). (Mitchell, 2017)

i      
Features of Hybrid
Topology

(1)              
It is a combination of
two or topologies.

(2)              
The
advantages and disadvantages of inheriting the included topology.

ii     
Advantages of Hybrid
Topology

(1)              
Reliable
error detection and troubleshooting is easy.

(2)  
Effective.

(3)   As the size
increases, the scalable can easily be increased.

(4)  
Flexible.

iii   
Disadvantages of Hybrid
Topology

(1)  
Complex in design.

(2)  
Expensive

III.
COMPARISON OF TOPOLOGY

Table: Comparison of different
topologies and its criteria

Criteria/Topology

Bus

Ring

Star

Mesh

Tree

Hybrid

Network Performance

Small

Small/Large

Small

Small

Large

Large

Cable length

Less

Neither less nor more

More

More

More

More

Traffic

Less

High

Medium

No

High

High

Dataflow Efficiency

More

Neither less nor more

More

More

More

More

Failure

Easy to solve

Difficult to solve

Easy to solve

Easy to solve

Difficult to solve

Easy to solve

Cost

Low

High

High

High

High

High

Note: Topology
comparison presents a variety of knowledge / ideas to determine network
performance, data flow efficiency, cost, and cable requirements of specified
topology.

IV.
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT NETWORK TOPOLOGY- LOGICAL TOPOLOGIES

Logical network topologies emphasize the representation of data flows
between nodes. This means that the logical topology relates to the arrangement
of devices on the network system and their communication. The primary role of a
logical topology is to communicate between the physical topologies of different
systems. (Santra, 2013)

A.   
Shared Media Topology

 In shared a media topology, the system has
unlimited access to the physical media, meaning that all the systems in the
network have physical access to
the physical layout at any time. Collisions are the major drawback
of this topology because multiple
systems transmit information simultaneously on the wire, colliding packets, and
as a result the collision kills the packet. Ethernet is an
example of a shared media topology. As a remedy, some huge networks are broken
down into smaller networks. Some Ethernets use Carrier Sense Multiple Access
protocol to reduce the number of collisions.

B.    
Token Based Topology

In a token-based topology, a token that propagates over the network is used
to access the physical media. If any node wants to send a packet to another, it
should wait for the token to be passed clockwise or counterclockwise within the
network. After obtaining the token, the node can send a data packet to the
network, and all nodes in the path from the sender node to the target node
should send data packets. All intermediate nodes should check the destination
address if it matches any data packet of people match and generate a
confirmation package. The acknowledgment packet should follow the reverse path
to confirm the sender node: the packet is received by the destination node.

V.
References:

Reference 1: Cem Ersoy,  Shivendra PanWar “Topological Design of
Interconnected LAN-MAN Networks” IEEE INFOCON,pp.22602269, 1992.

Reference 2: Li Chiou Chen “The Impact of
Countermeasure Propagation on the Prevalence of Computer Viruses” IEEE
Transactions on Systems, MAN, and Cybernetics PartB; Cybernetics Volume 34
Number 2 April 2004.

Reference 3: Data Communication and
Networking”,Fourth Edition by Behrouza A. Forouzan, TMH.

Reference 4: Data Communication and
Networking”,Second Edition by Achyut S Godbole,Tata McGraw Hill.

Reference 5: Lu, George
(2017, January 22). Network Topology. Retrieved December 27, 2017, from
https://prezi.com/d3tfmwf0hpba/network-topology/. Accessed 28 Dec. 2017.

Reference 6: Brett, M.E.A.D.O.R. 2008. Network
Topologies. A Survey of Computer
Network Topology and Analysis Examples. Online. 28 December 2017.
Available from: https://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse567-08/ftp/topology.pdf