ABSTRACT

Cryptography
is  science and an ancient
art.cryptograhy is used to secure information which is highly
confidential.cryptography is used to secure information by changing it into non
readable form.it is used from thousand of year.with passage of timeinformation
security becoming important in data storage.its history start from 1980 but it
was not popular because people don’t have information about it but in 1989 when
www was invented it gain popularity.and with passade of time it become the
essential part of the information security.now study about the ancient method
of cryptography and about its future enhancement.

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INTRODUCTION

Security in very important in data transferring.data transfer is a
process in which we transfer data from one location to another location and
from one host to another host.today internet gain value for exchange of data
therefor demand is increasing day by day for searching a solutrion which can
protect their data from thieves attacks.during data transfer system try his
best that no external party can change the data.so to minimize this situation
system converts its data into a non readable form in the time when its sents
from sending side and when data reaches its destination system convert data
again into its original form. There are many method  which is used to for security of the data

Cryptography

 

1.It is the art and science of
protecting information from undesirable individuals by converting it into a
form non-recognizable by its attackers while stored and transmitted

Encryption

It is the element of cryptography it uses a key or a parameter  for data transformation.some message
trequired the same length of key which is equall to the message which is
encoded ut in the same way some other encryption algorithm uses the smaller key
for encoded message.when message received on receiver side Decryption of the
data occur which iresult in orginal message.it is used in modern time.for
example  automatic teller machine used
this method.this also permit message to be authenticated by creating digital
signature this is very useful when sensitive email are sent for communication.

 

Cipher

20 cipher is any method of encrypting text (concealing
its readability and meaning). It is also sometimes used to refer to the
encrypted text message itself although here the term ciphertext is preferred.

 

Decryption -restore
the original information from theencrypted form.

Plaintext

 The data
in its original form is called plain text

Ciphertext

 The data which is encrypted is called
ciphertext.

Cryptanalysis
 The techniques
 which is used for
deciphering a message without its  knowledge of the enciphering details is called
cryptanalysis.

Cryptology-
 The areas
of cryptography and cryptanalysis are called cryptology.

 

Historical
Cryptography

Ancient Egypt

 

The
ancient of cryptography is from Egyption.Nearly 4000 years agoon the tomb of
nobleman Khnumhotep.He used unusuall symbol for information hiding.this method
replace  by cipher in modern age.with the
passage of time Egyption culture evolved 
it become more common.there are many theory about why Egyption used
encryption system some people think that they want to hide theire religious
rituals from common people.

Greece

 

In about 500
B.C. the Spartans dev evolved a device called Scytale.this device was used to
send and receive private secret message. The shape of the device was a cylinder
in which a narrow strip of parchment was wound. Length-wise   message was then written on the parchment.
Once it was unwound the message on the strip of parchment became unreadable. On
receiver side to receive message an identical cylinder was needed. It was only
then that the letters would line up resulting in the original message.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

 

 

 

Rome

 

The
earliest military use of cryptography comes from Julius Caesar 2,000 years ago.
Caesar, being commander of the Roman army, solved the problem of secure
communication with his troops.

 

Caesar developed
a substitution ciprmethod in which he 
substitute letters from different letters. Only those who knew the
substitution used could decipher the secret messages. Now when the messengers
were overtaken the secret messages were not exposed. This gave the Ro man army
a huge advantage during war.

 

 

 

 

REFRENCES

20 http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cipher

 

Jefferson
Wheel Cipher

In the late 1700’s, Thomas Jefferson give  a cipher system which was  similar to the Vigenere Cipher except that its
security was high. He invented a machine which has 26 wheels and on each wheel
alphabets were randomly scattered. The wheels were numbered and ordered with a
specified order. This order is the key to the encryption algorithm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modern
Encryption

The “one-time pad” encryption algorithm which was
invented in  early 1900’s, andi  has been proven as unbreakable. The one-time
pad algorithm is derived from a previous cipher called Vernam Cipher. One-time
pad called unbrokeable because of two reason first is that the key which is
used is completely random and second is that it is implemented by using modular
addition of XOR which is used to combine plain text with key elements.

 An example of this is shown in Figure 11. The
key used for encryption is also used for decryption. Applying the same key to
the ciphertext results back to the plaintext.

                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

Future Methods
of Encryption

Elliptic Curve
Cryptography

Elliptic Curve
Cryptography (ECC) has actually as of now been designed yet is considered by
the creator to be a future strategy of cryptography since its favorable
circumstances and hindrances are not yet completely caught on. ECC is a way to
deal with encryption that uses the mind boggling nature of elliptic bends in
limited fields. ECC normally utilizes an indistinguishable kinds of
calculations from that of Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA Encryption. The
distinction is that the numbers utilized are browsed a limited field
characterized inside an elliptic bend articulation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantum
Computation

 

 

 

Quantum
calculation is performed in a quantum PC or processor, which is a processor
that makes utilization of quantum mechanical wonders, for example, quantum
superposition and quantum ensnarement. Present day PCs store information
utilizing a parallel configuration called a “bit” in which a
“1” or a “0” can be put away. The calculations in current
PCs regularly work in an a little bit at a time form. Quantum PCs store
information utilizing a quantum superposition of various states. These various
esteemed states are put away in “quantum bits” or “qubits.”
Depending on the quantum outline, each qubit can store a set number esteems all
the while (Jones 2009). This enables the calculation of numbers to be a few
requests of greatness speedier than customary transistor processors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

There has been a
historical pattern that shows the country with the strongest encryption has
been a leader in military power. By studying cryptography and encryption, a country
could strengthen its defenses and have the necessary means to survive in a
hostile world. An understanding of encryption can also help individuals with
securing private data and information. Even though it is severely unethical,
our communication with one another is constantly being monitored. Those who
monitor our communication can include governments, internet service providers,
hackers, identity thieves, and more. By learning to use cryptography for secure
communication, we can safe guard ourselves from being compromised by those who
could steal our information. Cryptography is illegal in many countries because
the local government wishes to be able to read any transmission sent. Many
people speculate that the United States does not need these laws because the
NSA has developed methods of cryptanalysis that break all encryption methods
currently known.