B.    Reading Fluency

1.    Definition of Reading

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                 To bear a
meaning of what reading is, some statements are served as follows. According to
Beene and Kopple (1987: 11), reading is defined as the process of finding
meaning of written text. It means that when reading process occurs, it is not
just sounding the letters of the text but also find what the written text want
you to know.  Straiger (1973: 45) said
that Reading is more than gain the meaning from printed books. It includes
mental process such thinking, analyzing, problem-solving, discriminating,
judging and evaluating. It means that reading is not simple activity, but
involve readers’ perception and thought. reading is not just about print on a
page or screen, but also about people intention, reaction, and thinking.

2.    The Components of Reading

            In order to become a successful
reader, the reader should master the components of reading. According to
National Reading Panel (2000), there are five essential components of reading.
Those are phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and
fluency.

 

 

a.    Phonics

Phonics
involves blending sound made from letters to recognize word. Phonics is the
relationship between a specific letter and its sound, only as it relates to the
written word. When a reader, have not yet met with a certain word, they still
are able to read it with phonic knowledge. For example, if a child does not
recognize the word chant, he might break the word apart into pieces, such as
/ch/ /a/ /n/ /t/ . Then, the child combines those sounds to create the word
chant.

b.    Phonemic Awareness

A phoneme
is the smallest unit of sound in a word. Phonemic awareness is the ability to
hear and manipulate sounds in word. Phonemic awareness is more than identifying
sounds. For example the word CAT is consisted from three phonemes (C-A-T). Further,
the phonemic awareness is the
ability to blend these three sounds together to form the word cat and, when
asked, to identify and separate the sounds within the word. Phonemic awareness
emphasizes on the sound of spoken word.

 

 

c.    Vocabulary

Enrichment
of vocabulary helps readers to comprehend a text.

d.    Comprehension

Comprehension
is more than sounding the letters of the text read, but understanding what the
readers have read.

e.    Fluency

Fluency is
an ability to read a text as good as we speak or naturally. The National
Reading Panel’s research findings concluded that oral reading and repeated oral
reading had a positive impact on word recognition, reading fluency, and
comprehension in students of all ages.
(https://www.readnaturally.com/research/5-components-of-reading, accessed
January 30, 2018)

3.    Reading Fluency

1.    Definition
of Oral Reading Fluency

       Some definition dealing with reading fluency
had proposed. According to Rasinski (1988: 3), reading fluency refers to the
smoothness and natural spoken of the written text. Reading fluency considered
as the important element in every reading program (Hudson et al, 2005: 702). It
means that reading fluency is a need for readers, especially struggles readers
because the lack of reading fluency gives bad impact on reading comprehension.

        In addition, Shanahan (2005: 18)
defines oral reading fluency as an ability to read aloud a text with
appropriate accuracy, speed, and expression. It is important for readers to
have ability in reading quickly but still keep the accuracy and the expression
when reading.

2.    The Dimension of reading fluency

Rasinski
(2004: 46), Hudson et al (2005: 702) proposes three dimensions of reading fluency,
those are:

a.     Accuracy

Readers
should be able to vocalize the words with minimum errors.

b.    reading rate (automaticity)

It refers
to the words read per minute. And it involves automaticity. The more automatic,
the higher the rate will be.

c.    prosody or expression.

The reader
is expected to be able in expressing the text they read properly

 

3.    Assessing Reading Fluency

 By paying attention to the dimensions above,
teachers can assess students’ oral reading fluency. To assess the accuracy,
calculate the percentage of the words that readers decode accurately. to assess
the automaticity, calculate the amount of the readers read per minute( reading
rate). To assess prosody pay attention to expression, volume phrasing,
smoothness and pace of the readers.

C.    Reading Habit

1.    Definition of Reading Habit

There are
many definitions of habit. According to 
Oxford Learners Dictionaries.com, habit is a thing that you do often and
almost without thinking, especially something that is hard to stop doing. As
According to Longman (2003: 848) Habit defines as something that you do
regularly or usually, often without thinking about it because you have done it
so many times before. In addition, Narramore (1974) cited on Ogbodo (2010: 229)
defined habit as “a pattern of activity which, through repetition, has been
learned to the point that it has become automatic and can be carried on with a
minimum of conscious effect”. From the definitions above, the writer concludes
that habit is an activity that is done again and again until it becomes
automatic with minimum effort.

Reading is
seen as habit when it is done repeatedly, automatically flows with minimum
effort. Shen ( 2006) defines reading habit as how much books read, how often
and what does read. Reading habit defines as an important vehicle to increase
personalities (Rout, S. K and Chettri, Kushmeeta, 2013) and their social
environment ( Ogbodo, Ochanya R, 2010). It means that people who read much will
have deeper knowledge and understanding. When people have its, it can be used
for distinguishing a good thing and bad thing, and apply it in real life
environment. Because of its important, it is why having reading habit should be
grown since an early age.