Based on the above discussion, mass incarceration, which is
regarded as a contemporary issue of significance to the Black Community was
being highlighted. In this respect, the difficulties encountered by the Black
Community in the society in comparison with the community in the majority were
identified. In addition to this, critical race theory, which reflects the impact of race and cultural
perceptions over the victims of racism was
analyzed. Furthermore,
anti-discriminatory practices and
implications for YCD practices were also
highlighted with the objective of countering the issues and adverse impacts
associated with racial discrimination.

Conclusion

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In addition to this, the epidemiological model was applied by
Ernest Drucker in order to further analyze
the impact of racial discrimination on minor communities (Banks et al., 2013). Based on their work, negative implications in the form of short
life expectancy, unstable employment, incapacitation for life and
marginalization in society was significantly highlighted.

With reference to the practices
of Youth Work and Community Development, numerous researchers and studies have been conducted regarding issues
encountered by the Black Community. This is evident from the work Mark
Hatzenbuehler to assess the impact of racial discrimination particularly in
case of areas of the minority where
incarceration took place (Zeldin et al., 2013). Although they studied individuals who were not involved in such
incarceration; however, they were subject to the impact of racial
discrimination that resulted from it. Compelling evidence was provided by their
research that laid increased significant in countering discrimination due to
its adverse implications.

Moreover, a significant part is played by the government with
respect to the implementation of
anti-discrimination practices. In this
respect, collateral consequences associated with several convictions can be
mandated, as in the case of offences
associated with the drug (Hutchinson and Dorsett, 2012). Since the family of the incarcerated
individual is not permitted to receive benefits from the state, particularly in
case of individual belonging to the Black Community, which leads towards
increased financial and emotional pressure (Hutchinson and Dorsett, 2012). Therefore in this regard, the Congress has permitted the States
to disregard any penalty that may severe repercussions for members of the Black
Community.

Furthermore, in relation to anti-discriminatory practices, for the
purpose of countering the criminogenic and collateral impacts resulting from
the incarceration of members associated
with Black Community can be reduced through implementation of practices that seek
to reduce the number of such individuals from going into jail, and eventually
creating a balanced society (Rogers, 2012). This is evident from anti-discriminatory practices that were
undertaken by the former President Barack Obama, who commuted imprisonment of
46 women and men associated with the Black Community.

With respect to practices
aimed towards reducing discrimination, economic and racial segregation should
be reduced as they are considered as the principal issue pertaining to
discrimination faced by the Black Community (Thompson, 2016). However, in this regard, significant challenges and pressure
will be encountered by the public as well
as policymakers for the purpose of developing practices
of anti-discrimination. Since severe economic and social disadvantage is levied
upon the Black Community as a result of racial residential and racial
segregation that towards discriminations, therefore fair laws concerning
housing are required by the implemented by state and federal law (Thompson, 2016). This will be indeed beneficial with respect to reduction in the
rates of crimes associated with the majority
and minority communities. Not only this, the adverse impact resulting from
coercive mobility and mass incarceration that is levied upon the Black
Community may also be countered through a reduction
in social problems (Rogers, 2012).

Implications for
YCD Practice and Consideration of Anti-Discriminatory Practices

 

Furthermore, as a strategy of empowerment for
communities’ subject racism, a radical traditional with respect to mobilization
that is race-conscious is embraced and identified by a scholar of critical race. In addition to this, rather than
integrationists approach towards racial justice, a nationalist approach is to
be re-invigorated, while an in-depth inquiry with respect to the distribution of employment, power, education,
and wealth is to be conducted (Willis, 2017). Many of theorists of critical race celebrate
passionate and personal opinions in their teachings and voices, as they believe
that the perpetuation concerning racial hierarchy is veiled by the objective
voice associated with the law.

According to the theory
of critical race, the presence of natural
reference in the race has been rejected,
as it recognized as an outcome of various
social procedures. The major and principal project of a theory of critical race is associated with the cultural, social, and legal operation, based on
which, individuals are invested and assigned to
races (Milner IV, 2013). Thus, recognizing
race is regarded as outcomes of social practices rather than inherent characteristics
of individuals. Since racial status is constructed by intentional practices and
unconsciousness, therefore, legal reforms, practices,
and stereotypes should address unconscious procedures in addition to intentional actions (Milner IV, 2013).

In addition to this, for the
purpose of analyzing the construction of
law towards disadvantaged communities, various critical strategies have been
drawn through a combination of utopian
and pragmatist. In this respect, they have joined struggles with respect to counter-mobilization and transformation of
society with the objective of attaining racial justice (Willis,
2017). Since communities, rather than
an abstract set of principles are subject
to racial discrimination, therefore, for the purpose of eliminating racial
oppression and oppression of any kind, an initiative has been undertaken by theorists of critical race in order to
establish a movement in this prospect. On the other hand, individual ideas,
methods, and routes have been pursued by the scholars as rather than
considering it as aberrational, they find racism endemic. They believed that
rather than dealing with racism, ideals of liberal legal concerning colour-blindness and neutrality have replicated
it (Willis,
2017). They argue for the purpose of
justice concerning social and racial matters, eclectic and pragmatic strategies
should be pursued, while analysis should be undertaken on the basis of
contextual and personal experience.

Furthermore, for the purpose of
justice with respect to racism, progressive political struggles are combined by
theories of critical race. Additionally, scholarly and conventional legal
norms, which are considered as a component of illegitimate hierarchies are also
criticised under critical race theory for alteration (Douglass, 1857). In this
regard, racial power and race, which are developed by culture and law are
challenged by scholars of critical race theories (Harris
et al., 2012). Despite constitutional guarantee
and rule of law for extending the undivided
protection of laws, theorists of critical race have
laid their focus towards the maintenance
of privilege and regime of the supremacy
of the white. Inadequacies related to
litigations of conventional civil rights have been identified by a scholar of critical race, while the law has been associated with the problem rather
than considered a tool by feminists and theorists of critical race. Regardless
of the indeterminacy of rights and internal coherence, critical legal scholars
have been criticised by theorists of the critical
race for neglecting the matter with respect to the discourse of rights in social movements (Harris
et al., 2012).

Critical Race Theory, also known
as CRT is an interpretive and theoretical framework, under which, the existence
of racism and race under different modes of culture is being examined. In this
regard, theorists of CRT seeks to reflect over the impact of race and cultural
perceptions of the victims of racism and their course of action to counter such
prejudice (Harris
et al., 2012).

Critical Race
Theory

 

With respect to the contemporary issue encountered, the
participation of the Black Community in the political economy is also affected
by mass incarceration. This results from “invisible punishments” levied on the
incarcerated individual causing civil exclusion, which leads to denial
concerning benefits, privileges, and rights enjoyed by citizens (Chessum, 2017). This is imposed through the application
of laws concerning felon disenfranchisement, based on which, such individuals
from the Black Community lose their voting rights either temporarily or
permanently. In addition to this, incarceration of the masses of members of
Black Community also affects their position in the market of labour (Wilson, 2012). Thus, the situation in
respect of matters concerning unemployment is worse for the Black Community,
since they are not even included in the statistics concerning unemployment.

Furthermore, the extended network of friends and kin are also
strained due to mass incarceration. These networks are indeed signs for the sustenance of the Black
Community, particularly in social and economic hardships (Chessum, 2017). Additionally, social costs are also created in this regard, as
communities, social networks, and families are deprived of staying in contact with the incarcerated
member. Not only this, the social norms of the Black Community are also
influenced following mass incarceration. In this regard, the theory of social
disorganization provides that the foundation of a community in respect of
social control is influenced as a result of a weak infrastructure (Chessum, 2017). Since the Black Community encounters disorganization it
encounters hindrance with respect to reaching conclusion regarding avenues and
values for the purpose of resolving problems that are necessary for the enforcement of social norms. Consequently,
there is increased the risk for the safety
of the community to be in jeopardy due to
break down being caused by informal social controls.

Moreover, incarceration of any individual associated with the
Black Community leads to a social and financial burden on the rest of their
family members. With reference to this, an ethnographic study concerning
incarceration of males belonging to Black Community provides that in such
situations, their related members are burdened with extra financial expenses
for the purpose of ensuring contact with the incarcerated member (Scherer, 2013). Not only this, they also faced issues regarded assistance
related to child care, and loss of
income. In addition to this, the presence
of incarcerated member leads to further stress concerning the tension in the community in concerning surviving the ordeal
and the well-being of the individual.

Further reflecting upon this contemporary issue encountered by the
Black Community, the work of Chessum (2017) reflects on the fact that incarceration of the masses belonging
to one single community has a negative
impact on the entire community due to its straining cumulative effect. In this
regard, the harm pertaining to the social network of such individuals initiates
from their family, which further influences to the community with which the
family of such individuals is related- in
this case, the Black Community (Scherer, 2013).

Based on statistics, 12% of individuals falling in the age group
of 25-29 and belonging to the Black Community are in jail in comparison with
only 2% of such individuals who are white. Thus, half of the dropouts from high
school and one from every three individual belonging to the Black Community
goes to prison over the course of their entire lifetime (Langford and Speight, 2015). Rather than becoming part of the market of labour, serve as a militant or attend college,
individuals from Black Community usually end up in prison, due to which, it is
no longer regarded as a rare event or situation for them.

Although numerous studies have been conducted in this regard, many
emerging researchers and previous scholars have
provided a provocative claim with respect to the issue concerning the criminal
justice system and racial discrimination. In this regard, the penal system has
been highlighted as “Jim Crow” due to its black tinge (Langford and Speight, 2015). A large population of young black men has encountered an unpredicted market of an adult following continuation in the cycle of incarceration.
However, significant impact with respect to mass incarceration has been faced
by the Black Community. This is evident from the fact that although they
constitute only 12% of the total population of US; however, they constitute 40%
with respect to the population of prisons
(Langford and Speight, 2015).

Since the past five decades,
the Black Community have lost their freedom and liberty, following the win over
their civil rights. Contemporarily a large portion of the population of the
prison comprises of individuals belonging to the Black Community, and thus, the
lifetime issue concerning incarceration
has increased significantly (Wilson, 2012). This can be particularly reflected from the fact that the
population of prisoners in jails has
increased significantly in the US, and as
a result, it is considered as the largest jailer worldwide. Additionally, since
members of Black Community go to jail 6.5 times as compared to white men, they
are under more threat (Wilson, 2012).

Contemporary
Issue of Significance to the Black Community

 

The purpose of this assignment is to reflect upon the critical
race theory. In this regard, a contemporary of issue that is significant to the
Black Community will be discussed. In this regard, issue related to mass custody that is encountered by the
black community will be analysed
critically. In addition to this, a critical understanding concerning the
“critical race theory will also be demonstrated. Furthermore, discussion with
respect to the implications of Youth Work and Community Development and
practices concerning anti-discrimination will also be taken into consideration.