BROADBAND COMMUNICATION

 

                              DET-730

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                        ASSIGNMENT

 

 

 

 

SUBMITED
TO                            SUBMITED BY

 

 

NAVEED
REHMAN                                   
MANJOT SINGH

                                                                   

Contents:

Sr.no

Topic Name

Page No

1

GSM ARCHITECTURE (TITLE)

3

2

INTRODUCTION

4

3

MOBILE STATION

4-7

4

BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM

7-9

5

NETWORK SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

10-12

6

OPERATION SUPPORT SUBSYSTEM

12-13

7

ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS

14-15

8

CONCLUSION

16

9

REFERENCES

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       GSM ARCHITECTURE

 

 

                      GSM ARCHITECTURE

 

 

GSM
is a mobile communication modem; it represents the Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM). The idea of ??GSM, developed at Bell Labs in 1970, is the
most widely used mobile communication system in the world. GSM is an open
digital cellular technology used to transport mobile voice and data services in
the 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz bands.

 

The GSM system was developed as a digital system that uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology for communication. The GSM digitizes and reduces the data and then sends it over a channel with two different client data streams, each of which is in its own slot. The digital system can carry 64kbps to 120Mbps data rates.

 

INTRO
LINK: https://www.elprocus.com/gsm-architecture-features-working/

 

A GSM network consists of the
following components:

·       
The Mobile Station (MS)

·       
The Base Station Subsystem
(BSS)

·       
The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

·       
The Operation Support
Subsystem (OSS)

 

MOBILE STATION:

 

MS
by the radio transceiver, display and digital signal processor and SIM cards
and other physical devices. It provides an air interface for users in the GSM
network. Therefore, other services are also provided, including:

 

·       
Voice teleservices

·       
Data bearer services

·       
 The features’ supplementary
services

 

 

THE
MOBILE STATION FUNCTIONS

 

Mobile
Station also provides a receiver for SMS messages, enabling users to switch
between voice and data usage. Moreover, mobile facilitates access to voice
messaging systems. Mobile Station also provides access to various data services
available in the GSM network. These data services include:

 

·        The X.25 packet switches to PAD via PAD at 9.6 Kbps over a synchronous or asynchronous dial-up connection. ·        General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which uses data transmission methods based on X.25 or IP at speeds up to 115 Kbps. ·        High-speed, circuit-switched data at speeds up to 64 Kbps.

 

LINK: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_mobile_station.htm

 

 

 

 

VOICE TELESERVICES

 

The ability to carry traffic is used by Teleservice to transmit data. These services are further diverted by:

 

·       
Voice call

·       
Videotext and Facsimile

·       
Short text messages

 

Video call: The most basic Teleservice supported by GSM is the phone. This includes full-speed voice and emergency calls at 13 kbps and the nearest emergency service provider by dialing three digits.

 

Videotext and facsimile: Another set of remote services includes video text access, Teletex transport, Facsimile alternative voice and Facsimile group 3, Auto Facsimile group 3, and more.

 

Short text messages: The Short Message Service (SMS) service is a text messaging service that allows sending and receiving text messages on your GSM phone. In addition to simple text messages, other textual data, including news, sports, finance, languages, and location-based data, can be transmitted.

 

 

                             Bearer Services

 

Data services or bearer services are used over GSM phones. Receiving and sending data is a key cornerstone for a wide range of mobile Internet access and mobile data transfer. GSM current data transfer rate of 9.6k. New developments that will drive the transmission rate of GSM user data are now available for HSCSD (High Speed ??Circuit Switched Data) and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service).

 

 

                        Supplementary
Services

 

Additional services are additional services provided in addition to remote services and hosting services. These services include caller identification, call forwarding, call waiting, multiparty calls, and outgoing (international) calls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 

LINK: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_user_services.htm  

 

 

            BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM (BSS)

 

The BSS is composed
of two parts:

·       
The Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

·       
The Base Station Controller (BSC)

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The BTS and BSC communicate via the designated Abis interface, making it possible to operate between components made by different vendors. The BSS radio components can consist of four to seven or nine cells. BSS may have one or more base stations. The BSS uses the Abis interface between BTS and BSC. Then connect from the BSS to a separate high-speed line (T1 or E1) of the mobile MSC.

 

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            THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION
(BTS)

 

The
BTS accommodates the radio transceivers that define the cell and handles the
radio link protocol with the MS. In metropolitan areas, many BTSs may be
deployed.

 

 

The BTS corresponds to the
transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. The BTS is usually
placed in the center of a cell. Its transmit power defines the size of a cell.
Each BTS has 1 to 16 transceivers, depending on the density of users in the
cell. Each BTS serves as a single cell. It also includes the following
features:

 

Encoding,
encrypting, multiplexing, modulating, and feeding the RF signals to the
antenna
Transcoding
and rate adaptation
Time
and frequency synchronizing
Voice
through full- or half-rate services
Decoding,
decrypting, and equalizing received signals
Random
access detection
Timing
advances
Uplink
channel measurements

 

        THE
BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC)

 

The
BSC manages the radio resources of one or more BTS. It handles radio channel
settings, frequency hopping and switching. The BSC is the connection between
the mobile device and the MSC. The BSC also translates the 13 Kbps voice
channel used over the radio link to a standard 64 Kbps channel used by Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSDN) or ISDN.

 

It allocates and
releases MS frequencies and time slots. The BSC also handles inter-cell
handovers. It controls the power transfer between BSS and MS in its area. The function
of the BSC is to allocate the necessary time slots between the BTS and the MSC.
It is a switching device that handles radio resources. Other features include:

 

Control
of frequency hopping
Performing
traffic concentration to reduce the number of lines from the MSC
Providing
an interface to the Operations and Maintenance Center for the BSS
Reallocation
of frequencies among BTSs
Time
and frequency synchronization
Power
management
Time-delay
measurements of received signals from the MS

LINK: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_base_station_subsystem.htm

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            NETWORK SWITCHING SUBSYSTEMS
(NSS)

 

The main part is the Mobile Switching
Center (MSC) Network Switching System (NSS) performs mobile exchanges and call
exchanges between other fixed or mobile network users as well as the management
of mobile services such as authentication.

 

 

The exchange system includes the
following functional elements:

 

     
        HO  
ME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)

HLR is a database for storing and
managing subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database
because it stores permanent data about subscribers, including the subscriber’s
service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual
buys a subscription in the form of a SIM, all information about the
subscription is registered in the operator’s HLR.

        
MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC)

 

The core part of the network subsystem
is MSC. The MSC performs call exchanges between mobile and other fixed or
mobile network users as well as the management of mobile services such as
roaming subscriber registration, authentication, location updating, handoff and
call routing. It also performs ticketing, network interfaces, public channel
signalling and more. Each MSC is identified by a unique ID.

 

       
      VISITOR LOCATION
REGISTER (VLR)

The VLR is a database that contains the
user’s temporary information that the MSC needs to access the user. The VLR is
always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams to a new MSC area,
the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about that mobile station from
the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the
information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each
time.

 

      
      AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC)

 

The Certification Authority is a
secured database that stores copies of the keys stored on each user’s SIM card
for authentication and encryption of radio channels. AUC protects network
operators from the kinds of fraud found in today’s cellular world.P

 

 

 

    
    

   
        EQUIPMENT IDENTITY
REGISTER (EIR)

Device Identity Registration (EIR) is a
database that contains a list of all valid mobile devices on the network, with
the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) identifying each MS. If the
IMEI is reported as stolen or not approved, the IMEI is marked as invalid.

 

 
      GATEWAY MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER (GMSC)

GMSC is the point at which the ME
terminates the call initially and does not know the location of the MS.
Therefore, the GMSC is responsible for obtaining the MSRN (Mobile Station
Roaming Number) from the HLR based on the MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN Number,
MS’s “Telephone Number”) and routes the call to the correct Visiting
MSC. The term “MSC” part in the term GMSC is misleading because the
gateway operation does not require any link to the MSC.

 

   
                       SMS GATEWAY (SMS-G)

The SMS-G or SMS gateway is a term used
to describe uniformly the two short message service gateways defined in the GSM
standard. Two gateways handle different directions of the message. SMS-GMSC
(Short Message Service Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) is used to send short
messages to the ME. SMS-IWMSC (Short Message Interworking Mobile Switching
Centre) is used for short messages originating on this network. The role of
SMS-GMSC is like that of GMSC, and SMS-IWMSC provides a fixed access point for
short message service centres.

LINK: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_network_switching_subsystem.htm

LINK: http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/gsm_technical/gsm_architecture.php

 

 

 

        
  OPERATION SUPPORT
SUBSYSTEM (OSS)

The Operations and Maintenance Centre
(OMC) connects to all devices and BSCs in the switching system. The
implementation of OMC is called Operations and Support System (OSS).

 

Here are some of the OMC functions:

·       
Administration and commercial operation (subscription, end
terminals, charging and statistics).

·       
Security Management.

·       
Network configuration, Operation and Performance Management.

·       
Maintenance Tasks.

 

Operation and maintenance functions
based on the ITU-T Series M.30 standardized telecom management network (TMN)
concept.

The figure below shows the OMC
system covering all GSM elements:

 

OSS is a functional entity for
network operator monitoring and control systems. The purpose of OSS is to
provide cost-effective customer support for the centralized, regional and local
operations and maintenance activities required for GSM networks. An important
function of open source software is to provide an overview of the network and
support for the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance
organizations.

 

LINK: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_operation_support_subsystem.htm

 

 

Additional components of the GSM
architecture include database and messaging system capabilities:

 

Home
Location Register (HLR)
Visitor
Location Register (VLR)
Equipment
Identity Register (EIR)
Authentication
Centre (AUC)
SMS
Serving Centre (SMS SC)
Gateway
MSC (GMSC)
Chargeback
Centre (CBC)
Transcoder
and Adaptation Unit (TRAU)

 

The figure below shows the GSM network
with additional elements:

 

 

The MS and BSS communicate via the
Um interface. It is also known as the air interface or radio link. The BSS
communicates with Network Services Switching (NSS) centres over the A
interface.

 

    

 

                 GSM NETWORK AREAS

 

In the GSM network, the following
aspects are defined:

 

CELL: Cell is the basic service
area; a BTS covers a cell. Each cell has a Cell Global Identification (CGI), a
number that uniquely identifies the cell.

 

LOCATION AREA:   A group of cells form a location area (LA).
This is the area the user called when they received the call. Each LA is
assigned a Location Area Identity (LAI). Each Los Angeles is served by one or
more BSCs.

 

MSC/VLR SERVICE AREA: An area
covered by an MSC is called an MSC / VLR service area.

 

PLMN:  The area covered by a network operator is
called the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). The PLMN may contain one or more
MSCs.

 

                                CONCLUSION

 

 

The development of communication
and the improvement of people’s living standards are directly related to the
use of mobile phones. Cellular mobile radios – high-end, sophisticated
technologies that allow everyone to communicate with anyone. The rapid growth
of the mobile phone industry has become a pillar of business success and
efficiency as part of a global modern lifestyle.

In the work of this thesis, I try
to reflect on the GSM system. I hope I have given the overall style of GSM and
the philosophy behind the design. GSM is a standard that guarantees
interoperability, and will not benefit the public in terms of cost and service
quality by not stifling competition and innovation among suppliers.

Features and benefits of the GSM
system include superior voice quality, low end-of-line, operational and service
costs, high levels of security, international roaming support for low-power handsets,
and new business and networking facilities. In the coming days, 3G mobile
phones will be available worldwide, facilitating video conferencing for mobile
phones.

 

LINK: http://kanik-engineering.blogspot.co.nz/2009/10/conclusion.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                         REFERENCES

 

https://www.elprocus.com/gsm-architecture-features-working/

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_mobile_station.htm

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_user_services.htm

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_base_station_subsystem.htm

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_network_switching_subsystem.htm

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/gsm_technical/gsm_architecture.php

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_operation_support_subsystem.htm

http://kanik-engineering.blogspot.co.nz/2009/10/conclusion.html