CATCHMENT AREA OF HUB RIVER, BALOUCHISTAN

ABSTRACT

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Water is the
basic element of life, without it there is no concept of life. This vital
source is presently facing grave challenges for its existence on the face of
earth (WHO, 2009). The Hub River is one of the main water supply sources for
Karachi and Hub Area. No considerable investment has been made during last 32
years for exploration, preservation and development of water resources of the
area. This area needs focused attention with respect to exploration,
development and exploitation of its water resources. About 100 million gallons
designed water supply to Karachi from Hub reservoir is intermittent and
protracted for the last four years. Termination of water supply from this
source has added more difficulties in water crises of Karachi (Daily Express
Tribune, 2016). . Hub watershed is considered one of the vital sources to be
explored, developed and exploited for the present and future needs of the
region. Main objective of this study is characterization of Hub catchment area through
hydrological modeling. GIS is one of the latest technologies, which provide
efficient tools and environment for managing geographical data in digital
format.

INTRODUCTION

DEFINING GIS

A geographic information system (GIS) is
a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, all types of
geographical data. GIS
is efficient tool for the mapping of water routing, its patterns, information
about the network of channels, catchment/drainage area and its characteristics
like divides, slope and other aspects etc. Hydrology tool in GIS calculates the
stream network of drainage basin.

STUDY AREA

The area of study is catchment area of HUB
River. Hub River is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. It starts from the Pub Range in the south eastern
Balochistan and continues along the border of Sindh. It is located at
the margin of Sindh and Balochistan provinces. Its geographical location is
24°80″ S and 27°62″ N, 66°67″ W and 67°49″ E. Hub River
originates from the Khuzdar mountain series approximately 200 miles in the
north direction of Cape Monze and height from sea level is about 6,000 ft. It
is surrounded by mountains and is long and narrow in shape. The flow direction
of Hub River is north south, just around the boundary of two provinces of
Pakistan, Balochistan and Sindh and falls into the Arabian Sea.

MATERIAL
AND METHOD

The material
and methodology used in this study can be categorized as following.

      
I.           
Digital
Data (Satellite imageries and DEM data)

    
II.           
Arc
Hydro System

  III.           
Hydrological
modeling  

 

 

 

Satellite Images

Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) technology is very useful for
scanning earth’s surfaces and provides high resolution satellite images. In
present study, satellite images are used to project study area, which was
downloaded through USGS website (http://earthex plorer.usgs.gov).

Digital Elevation Model
(DEM)

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) is defined as grid based GIS
coverage representing elevation. It is used to display topographic information.

Arc Hydro System

Arc Hydro system is used for water based analysis. It works
in GIS environment and has a set of tools, which facilitate the analyses
performed for water resource management and their hydrological modeling. For
the assessment of a watershed/catchment area, it is important to monitor the
flow pattern and its effects across the area.

HYDROLOGICAL MODEL
TOOLS

The Hydrology tools
are used to model the flow of water across a surface.

How much
water is there?

Hydrologic modeling (precipitation-runoff modeling), determines
for a given storm on a landscape, how much water will become runoff.

Where will
it go?

Hydraulic modeling takes the quantity of water and the shape of
the landscape and stream channel and determines how deep and fast the water
will be, and what area it will cover in the event of a flood.

The
Hydrology tools can be applied individually or used in sequence to create a
stream network.

 

 

BASIN

Creates a raster delineating all
drainage basins.

FILL

Fills sinks in a surface raster to
remove small imperfections in the data.

FLOW
ACCUMULATION

Creates a raster of accumulated
flow into each cell. A weight factor can optionally be applied.

FLOW
DIRECTION

Creates a raster of flow direction
from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor.

SINK

Creates a raster identifying all
sinks or areas of internal drainage.

STREAM
ORDER

Assigns a numeric order to
segments of a raster representing branches of a linear network.

STREAM
TO FEATURE

Converts a raster representing a
linear network to features representing the linear network.

Tools
applied in GIS