Communication is a very
important in human activity, not just in organizational life, but in human life
in general. There is no day without communication. Communication is the process
of sending and receiving information or messages between two or more
individuals effectively so, that it can be understood easily. In other words it
can be said that communication is sending and receiving news or messages from
two or more people so that the intended message can be understood.
essential in human life. Humans interact with each other by way of
communication. Communications can be done in a simple way to complex ways, but
nowadays technological developments have changed the way how people communicate
drastically. Communication is not limited to mere words, but the form of any
interaction, smile, nodding head, body posture, expression of interest,
attentiveness that supports the same understanding, attitudes and aspirations.
Acceptance of the same understanding is the key in communication.
occurs when individuals achieve mutual understanding, stimulate others to take
action, and encourage people to think in new ways. The ability in communication
effectively will increase productivity, both the individual concerned and the
organization, so as to anticipate problems, make decisions effectively,
coordinate workflow, supervise others, develop relationships and can promote
work programs and organizational services. The ability to communicate
effectively will essentially determine success.
Many experts judge that
communication is a very fundamental need for a person in some community.
Professor Wilbur Schramm states that communication and society are two thinks
which cannot be separated from one another. In addition, without communication
it is impossible for society to be formed, on the contrary without society then
man cannot possibly develop communication. As social beings, humans always want
to connect with other human beings. They want to know the surroundings, even
want to know what is going on inside them. This curiosity forces people to
In the context of the
projection of human life, language is always used typically and has its own
rules. For that reason, there are many language in human life, can even be said
to be unlimited, and the interplay of the one language with one another cannot
be determined by a general rule. However, although there are differences there
are sometimes similar resemblances, and it is difficult to determine
definitively. Although people do not know exactly a particular language, but they
know what to do. Therefore, to reveal the essence of language in human life can
be accomplished by performing a description and giving examples in human life
communication, language is used differently from one person to another. The
different language used are depends on their background such as social class
and ethnicity. In the other hand, it even happens in the level of vocabulary,
grammatical construct and pronunciation. This difference of language used and
language variation does not only occur between social classes or ethnicity but
occurs in gender level. In this case, no
matter if people have different background, but maybe they often choosing their
word when they are speaking.
in Rahmat (2000) says that the connection between language and mind rests on
the assumption that language affects the human worldview of the world, as well
as influences the individual thinking of the language user. From the Whorf’s
statement can be said that words or language and mind have an inseparable
relationship. Both influence each other. On the one hand words are the medium
used to understand the world and are used in the process of thinking, on the
other hand understanding of words is the result of the activity of the mind.
Man is a creature of
the individual and also social beings at the same time, they need to interact
with other people. People always need the other people, they could not live
alone. People need to have communication with other people. According to
Effendy (2000:13), communication
is the process of the delivery of the mind or feelings by a person to another
person by using symbols that are meaningful for both parties, in particular
situation of communication using certain media to change attitudes or behavior
conduct one or a number of people so there is a certain effect expected.
One of the hallmarks of human communication is the ability
to go beyond the words uttered to compute what the speaker meant by an
utterance or the writer meant by sentences. Speakers or writer tacitly exploit
inferential principles to bridge the gap between words and meaning and count on
hearers to invoke the same principles for the purposes of utterance
to Yule (1996:41), certain information is always communicated by choosing a
word which expresses one value from scale of value. This is particularly
obvious in terms for expressing quantity. In the other hand, it called as
scalar implicatures. Scalar implicatures is an additional meaning of the
negative of any value higher on a scale than the one uttered (Yule, 1996:134).
Pragmatics is concerned
with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker or writer and it will be
interpreted by listener or reader in that situation. It has, consequently, more
to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances then what the
words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. In short,
pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning (Yule, 1996:3). Pragmatics not only
focuses on the speaker meaning but also focuses in particular context and how
the context influences what is said by the speaker. In short, can be said that
pragmatics also study about contextual meaning of an utterance by the speaker. Actually
not only an utterance, but also a statement is being conveyed by the writer.
Pragmatics is a wide
knowledge. It is not only discussed about speaker meaning or contextual meaning.
Pragmatics also discussed how the hearer or the reader can get communicated
than is said. It is about how hearer and reader can make inferences about what
is said with aim to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker or writer’s
intended meaning. Next, pragmatics also study of the expression of relative
distance. In the other word can be said that how close or distant the listener
is, speakers determine how much needs to be said.
In pragmatic subject, there is a chapter called cooperation
and implicature. In that chapter, the materials which being discussed are the
cooperative principle which discuss about maxim, hedges, conversational
implicature, generalized conversational impicature, scalar implicature,
particularized conversational implicatures, properties of conversational
implicatures, and the last is conventional implicature. In each sub chapter,
they have different definition and discussion. For further explanation,
implicatures divide into two categories, there are conversational and
conventional. Then, conversational divide into two parts, there are
particularized and generalized. Next, generalize divide into two parts, there
are indefinite and scalar.
In this paper, the researcher shall focus on scalar
implicature, a topic which maybe rare or only a little person who doing
research to this sub chapter. This phenomenon is particularly amenable to
empirical investigation for reasons. The reason is widespread agreement between
theoretical accounts of scalar implicature about the interpretation of scalar.
The competing theoretical accounts of implicature have achieved a considerable
level of conceptual clarity and precision, making it possible to generate clear
predictions about processing and acquisition from the linguistic claims about
the nature and availability of scalar implicature.
Here are some research questions of this research, first,
which words of scalar implicature are commonly used in advertisement. Second,
what is the meaning of those words in advertisement. Third, what is the
function of scalar word in advertisement. Next, the objectives of this study
are to know the words of scalar implicature are commonly used in advertisement,
to know the meaning of each scalar word which commonly used in advertisement,
and to know the function of scalar implicature.
The researcher hopes
that this research can give additional knowledge for other people especially in
pragmatics field in scalar implicature studies and also the phenomenon of the
type of scalar implicature and also can understand what the meaning of certain
word is. The researcher also hopes that this study can becomes further
references for researchers who are interested in scalar implicature study.
According to glossary of linguistics terms, scalar implicature is a quantity implicature based on the use
of an informationally weak term in an implicational scale. The
use implicates that all similar utterances using
an informational stronger term are not true. According to the conversational
maxim of quantity, a speaker would
ordinarily be required to make a stronger, more informative utterance if a true
one were available. Such an implicatures is called a scalar implicatures;
scalar implicatures are a sub-class of a type of implicature called quantity
implicatures. Scalar implicature rely for their generation and interpretation
upon comparisons of the relative strength or informativeness of utterance made
with other utterance a cooperative speaker might have made in a given context.
Yule (1960:40) states that implicatures is
additional conveyed meaning that contains in utterances. Implicatures is the
truth meaning in the utterances that is not stated explicitly by the speaker,
so the hearer should interpret the meaning about the utterance by themselves.
Implicatures are, under Grice’s view, inferences that depend upon a
pre-sumption of cooperation. In other words, unless people have reason to
believe otherwise, somebody presume other people to be cooperative in
conversation. Based upon this expectation, people are licensed to draw certain
(normally fallacious) inferences.
are both honest and informative. When speakers are cooperating with their
listener, they will contribute as much reliable information as they have
provided that it is appropriate and relevant to the purpose of the
conversation. Scalar implicatures that exhibit exhaustivity effect entail a
large, potentially infinite number of propositions. The basic of scalar
implicatures is that when any form in scale is asserted, the negative of all forms
higher on the scale is implicated. Scalar implicature is greater detail of a
particular sort of implicatures, expressing quantity and terms are listed from
the highest to the lowest value. The example of quantity implicatures are the
words all, most, many, some, few, always, often, sometimes, certain, probable,
possible, do badly, progress, do well, and none.
According to the
formulation of the background, the researcher chooses advertisement as the
object of this research. In this research, the researcher observes the used of
scalar implicatures in advertisement. Advertising is a medium which functions
as a marketing communication about a product. Advertising is also a way to
communicate between producers and customers in order to persuade the customers
to take action about the product. Sometimes, in advertising their products, the
producers use either the implicit or the explicit language to persuade the
customers to buy or to use their products.
The type of this research is descriptive qualitative
research. According to Nazir (1988),
descriptive method is a method in researching the status of a group of people,
an object, a set of conditions, and a system of thought or a class of events in
the present. The purpose of this descriptive study is to create a description,
painting systematically, factually and accurately about the facts, properties
and relationships between phenomena investigated. In addition, according to
Whitney (1960), descriptive method is fact-finding with the right
interpretation. In short, qualitative descriptive research is one of the types
of qualitative research. The purpose of this study is to reveal the events or
facts, circumstances, phenomena, variables and circumstances that occur when
the study took place by presenting what really happened.
research is a research that aims to understand the social realities which see
the world from what it is not from the world that should be. In the general
sense of qualitative research is research on descriptive research and tend to
use analysis. Creswell
states that qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding based
on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human
problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words,
report detailed views of information, and conducts the study in a natural
research is research which use data collected in the form of words or images
rather than in the form of numbers. Emphasize the work process such as all
phenomena encountered are translated into daily activities. Provides a point of
emphasis on meaning and focus on the problems of human life.
Qualitative method study has several techniques in
collecting the data. To get the relevant data, the researcher employed data
collection technique procedures as stated in the following. First, the
researcher downloaded some advertisement which suitable with the topic. Next,
the researcher selects the data from the advertisement. Then, theories which
have connection with the topic were collected. Finally, the researcher refitted
the data which have been collected.
to Yule (1996:41), the basis of scalar implicature is that when any form in a
scale is asserted, the negative of all forms higher on the scale is
implicatured. In this research, the researcher used some advertisement as an
object of this study. Advertising is news to encourage, persuade the public to
be interested in the goods and services offered. Notice to audiences about
things and services, installed in mass media such as newspapers and magazines,
or in public places. In general, the advertisement is the presentation of non
personal information about a product, brand, company, or store that is executed
with certain cost compensation. Therefore, advertising is a communication
process that has the purpose of persuading or attracting the crowd to take
actions that benefit the party who created the advertisement.
are 5 advertisements, consist of three advertisements of food and drink, second
consist of one advertisement of animal food, and the last is advertisement
about furniture especially spring bed.
first advertisement is comes from Florida. The kind of this advertisement is
about product of some drink especially orange juice. The name of this product
is Florida Orange Juice. In this advertisement, the data of scalar implicatures
are the word ‘much’ and ‘always’. The word ‘much’ can be seen in sentence
‘Drink this much Florida Orange Juice every day!’ and the word ‘always’ can be
seen in the sentences ‘Always ready to serve at a moment’s notice’ and in the sentence
‘Always drink a full big glass of Florida Orange Juice every single day’.
first word is the word ‘much’ in the sentence ‘Drink this much Florida Orange
Juice every day!’In that word can be seen that by choosing ‘much’ in that sentence
creates an implicature (+> in big scale). It is means that the producer of
this advertisement wants that the reader consumes this product in big scale. The
other word is the word ‘always’. The word ‘always’ in this advertisement is the
scale of frequency which can creates an implicature (+> in routine). It is
means that the producer of this advertisement wants or hopes that the readers
consume this product routinely.
second advertisement is Blizzard Fruitz. This is about food advertisement. The
word of scalar implicature which could be found is the word ‘all’. The word
‘all’ could be found in the sentence ‘All Natural’. The explanation of this
word is this word in this advertisement creates an implicature (+> no one chemical
ingredient in this product). From the analysis can be said that the producer
want to persuade or only give information to the reader if their product is
safe, without chemical ingredients.
advertisement is food product comes from McD. The scalar implicature which
could be found in this advertisement is the word ‘most’. The word ‘most’ can be
seen in the sentence ‘The most popular sticks in the NHL’. The word ‘most’ in
the advertisement creates implicature (+> this product is very well-known if
compared with another product). From the analysis of this advertisement can be
said that the factory want to say to the reader or public if their product is
very famous and also persuade the reader to buy their product. Again, they want
to show that their product is believable.
fourth advertisement is comes from animal food product. The name of the product
is Friskies 7. The word of scalar implicature of this advertisement is the word
‘all’. That word can be seen in the sentence ‘All players will be automatically
entered into a sweepstakes for the chance to win a trip to Las Vegas’. The word
‘all’ creates implicature (+> no one left).
this advertisement can be seen that maybe the producer is using of scalar word
looks different with other advertisement. In the advertisement before, all of
them have persuaded the reader or the public to consume or to buy their
product. While in this product, the used of scalar word not used to persuade
the reader to buy their product. In this product, the producer used the scalar
word to give information to the public that all people or customers include in sweepstakes
list and they will have same opportunity to become a winner. No one costumer
which not follow the quiz or the sweepstakes.
last advertisement is comes from furniture product. The scalar word which can
be found in this advertisement are the word ‘all’ and the word ‘many’. The word
‘all’ can be seen in the sentence ‘30% off all beds’. While the word ‘many’ can
be seen in the sentence ‘Many more great saving in-store’.
explanation of this word is the word ‘all’ in the sentence ‘30% off all beds’
can creates implicature (+> no one bed which no discount). Further
information from this word is the producer want to give information if their
product was being discount for 30%. In addition, in that sentence looks that
the producer gives that sentence to persuade the public to buy their product
with give discount 30%.
the word ‘many’ in the sentence ‘Many more great saving in-store’ can be
analyzed that many can creates implicature (+> to show quantity especially in
big scale). From the word can be analyzed that the stocks of the beds is in big
scale or can be said that the store has stock in big number. The purpose of
this sentence also to persuade the reader, they want showing that they have big
stock, so the buyers do not worry about the stock.
short, can be said that people need to have communication with other people. As
human being, they cannot life alone. They need to have socialization with other
people. People need language as a tool of their communication. Language can
helps them to deliver their message or their purpose. The reason why people
need language as their tool because language can deliver their message and
every word always has meaning. Actually, language is not always via utterance,
but also via sentence or only via body language. Overall, language can deliver
message always has meaning or purpose. In linguistics there is pragmatics which
is a knowledge which can help people to learn more how to understand the
meaning. For further information, pragmatics is not only as simple as study of
meaning. It is true that the entire world say that pragmatics is the study of
speaker meaning, but pragmatics has another definition. In the other words can
be said that pragmatics are the study of contextual meaning, the study of how
more gets communicated than is said, and the last is the study of the
expression of relative distance.
pragmatics, there are so many material can be learnt. In this research, the writer
only discuss about scalar implicature. Scalar implicatures is included in the
cooperation and implicature chapter. Scalar implicature is a branch of conversational
implicature. Scalar implicatures is a quantity
implicature based on the use of an informationally weak term in an implicational scale.
what already mention before, in this research, the researcher used
advertisements as her object. The reason why she chooses advertisement as her
object of the study because usually in advertisement scalar word is used to
support their promotion. In this study, the researcher decides to analyze five
advertisements. There are consists of three advertisements of food, one advertisement
of animal food, and the last is the advertisement of furniture (bed).
to the analysis results, can be seen that scalar word can be found in
advertisement. Although, maybe only one word or two words. Every scalar word in
every advertisement, sometimes they have different meaning. Based on the
analysis data, the reason why producer or factory used scalar word is they want
to persuade or give information to the public. They want to tell about their
products, maybe about quality, discount or maybe sweepstakes.
every sentence which already mention by the researcher, can be analyzed that the
words are categorized as scalar implicatures are commonly used in advertisement
are the words all, many, always, much, and most. Those words are can be found
in advertisement but, that are not only from one advertisement but five
advertisements. From the result can be conclude that not every producer or
factory add some scalar word in their pamphlet or advertisement.
is study about the meaning. Like the other words, scalar word in advertisement
also has meaning. The first word is ‘all’, the word ‘all’ in advertisement
which has been analyzed can creates implicatures (+> no one left, +> no
chemical ingredient in the product). Actually the word meaning sometimes little
bit different from one advertisement to another, because it also depends on the
context, what advertisement is it. The next words are ‘much’ and ‘many’. In
this case the word ‘much’ and ‘many’ can creates implicatures (+> in big
scale). Third is ‘always’, in advertisement of this research, the word ‘always’
can creates implicatures (+> in routine). The last word is ‘most’. In the
advertisement which being analyze by the researcher, the word ‘most’ can
creates implicatures (+> very especially very well known if compares with
on the analysis of the use of scalar word in advertisement, the researcher
concluded that the advertiser of advertisement is using scalar word in order to
change the use of persuasive and suggestive words to promote their product
which is banned in their advertisement rule. Finally, the writer concluded that
the use of scalar word is important in making advertisement. Data analysis in
every advertisement shows the additional conveyed meaning/implicit meaning (implicature)
from the advertiser of product.
Finally, with the explanation above can be said that
communication is important think in human life. In fact, people in entire the
world cannot be separated from communication to achieve a better purpose. In
this case, the function of communication is to deliver the message. The message
is not always about information, but also the persuasive word or maybe
sentence. Therefore, communication
remains and is done by every human being both with non verbal and verbal.
One example of communication is could be found in
advertisement. Advertisement is one example of indirect communication between
producer and public. Advertisement tries to persuade the reader to consume
their product. Scalar implicature is as one way to persuade the reader. The
researcher assumes that scalar implicature is suitable if it used in
Actually, not every advertisement use scalar word. Although
scalar word can be found in advertisement, but that is not easy. Not every
advertisement uses it and sometimes they use another word to persuade the