Explain the key features of laboratory experiments (criteria 1.1)

The method of experiment is the basic method of psychology, the researcher specially creates circumstances that stimulate the manifestation of a certain psychic phenomenon. In this case, the influence of individual factors on its occurrence and dynamics is established. The experiment is conducted as many times as necessary to identify the appropriate pattern.The laboratory experiment is characterized by the use of special laboratory equipment, which makes it possible to accurately record the quantity and quality of external influences and the psychic reactions caused by them. In the laboratory experiment, the activity of the subjects is stimulated by special tasks and is regulated by the instruction.

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Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of  laboratory experiments as a research method (criteria 1.2)

Advantage 1

Allows you to determine the cause and effect of any factors, precisely allows you to control extraneous and dependent variables, gives quantitative data that can be easily processed.

Experiment is easy to repeat creating the same conditions for its conduct

 

Advantage  2

Experiment is easy to repeat creating the same conditions for its conduct.

 

Disadvantage 1

Conditions are created artificially and this can affect the results because in ordinary life people behave differently

Disadvantage 2

The sample of respondents may be unsuccessful (not typical) or biased, which may lead to a distortion of the results of the experiment, and it will also be difficult to apply the results to the entire population.

 

Identify a study that used laboratory experiment as a research method (criteria 2.1)

            Loftus and Palmer “Reconstruction of automobile Destruction”1974

 

Evaluate the study you identified above in terms of the following (criteria 2.1)

Generalisability

Ethnocentric. Since this laboratory experiment was conducted only on university students, it is necessary to take into account some factors: most of the respondents have a small driving experience due to the young growth, they are all representatives of the same region, as well as one social group, additional learning at the university assumes a certain level IQ, trained attention and good memory.

 

 

Reliability

InternalVery high.Control and standards for all parameters (same place, same video, same questions – only one verb changed). In the second experimentation large sample.EcologyDisadvantages inherent in many laboratory experiments (artificially created conditions could affect the respondents’ perception of the situation, for example, the moment of surprise is lost, emotions are not involved, the size of cars is several times smaller than real ones – all this imposes an imprint on the perception of the intendant and the assessment of the situation).

 

Application

The results of the experiment found a direct practical application among police officers and lawyers, since they showed how critical the incorrectly asked leading questions can have on the testimony of witnesses (Devlin Report, 1974)

 

Validity

High Validity because it measured what it set out to measure. The experiment is conducted in the same room, the same clip was used, the same questions (only the verb was changed). Demand characteristics possible respondents “guessed” the desired answer in posing the question.

 

Ethics

Only you can add that the partisans who had a non-violent experience of road accidents could get a psychological trauma.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Explain the key features of case studies (criteria 1.1)

The case study is a comprehensive psychological analysis of a single person or a small group of people. While this method of research can provide a lot of information about one particular person, often the results obtained are difficult to generalize to a larger population. Therefore, case studies are often used in clinical practice or in cases where certain aspects of a person’s life cannot be reproduced or duplicated.

 

Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of case studies as a research method (criteria 1.2)

Advantage 1

The main advantage is a deep and rich study, which gives a high level of validity. Complex observation excludes the possibility of manipulating.

Advantage 2

The ability to directly perceive people’s behaviour in real time and in natural conditions.

 

Disadvantage 1

The main disadvantage because each person is unique is very difficult to generalize the results of the study to the entire population. Additionally, it is almost impossible to achieve a repeat of the observation.

 

 

Disadvantage 2

 Also, the researcher can be too involved in the observation and his subjective evaluation can lead to a distortion of the results of the observation.

 

 

Identify a study that used case study research method (criteria 2.1)

                                    “Genie”                                            

 

Evaluate the study you identified above in terms of the following (criteria 2.1)

Generalisability

It is difficult to make generalizations on the case of this particular case since it is unique, nevertheless, before Genie was found Behaviourists believed that the child learns the word  by word, in the Cognitive it was the representation that only a human has a specific area of the brain specializing in the language and thanks to this children perceive the grammar of the language, biologists believed that after entering into the period of sexual maturity, a full study of the language is not possible and the child cannot be rebaited. However, observations of the Genie and her subsequent progress have shown that many of these statements have been refuted.

 

Reliability

In general, this study is not possible to repeat, it is a unique situation, but the tests used in the research process can be repeated. Ecological is high, as the observation was conducted in a natural environment.

 

 

Application

It has great practical application because it helps to understand how children learn the language, as well their methods which used in the work with Genie help in the work with neglected children and autistics.

 

Validity

During the observation, a lot of detailed details were collected, but many questions (for example, the child was constantly subjected to beatings and it is impossible to exclude the brain injuries, also should be noted the possible bad genetics, because the behaviour of Genie’s parents is difficult to call adequate and the reason for this could well have been the mental illness, including passing on genetics).

 

Ethics

There are ethical violations. For example, in one of the first books a linguist who worked with Genie pointed out her real name, and also gave subtle details from her biography on which you can easily identify her and her family.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Explain the key features of surveys (criteria 1.1)

The survey is a verbal and communicative method during which the researcher communicates with the respondent. This method is one of the most common in psychology because of its high validity. Typically, a survey is a mass method and is not used to study an individual, but to study a group of people.

The survey tools can be questionnaires, interviews, as well as their combinations in order to eliminate possible random or false answers or to obtain more detailed information for research.

 

Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys as a research method (criteria 1.2)

Advantage 1

Are economical and effective achievements of a large amount of information. Can be conducted remotely via the Internet, mobile devices and cover a large area of geography.

 

Advantage 2

Give quantitative data that can be useful for maintaining and developing hypotheses. Standardized questionnaires provide the most objective data.

Disadvantage 1

Incorrect sample of respondents can influence the results of the survey (to choosing people for their survey, researchers should try to cover as many different people as possible on qualitative grounds, such as gender, age, income level, etc. Otherwise, we can say that the sample is unrepresentative.)

Disadvantage 2

The survey depends on the willingness, honesty and memory of the respondent. Answers can not always be an accurate reflection of the true opinion of the respondent. Indistinctly formulated questions can destroy a well-planned study.

 

Identify a study that used surveys as a research method (criteria 2.1)

            “Healthy Eating: What Does It Mean to Adolescents”(Minnesota 2001)     

 

Evaluate the study you identified above in terms of the following (criteria 2.1)

Generalisability

            The survey was conducted among a rather a large number of respondents however they from same area and from same age with similar eating hobbits (for other countries this may be irrelevant, for ensample in Thailand  and Italy fast food is relatively healthy   and in France fast food is does not have much distribution  traditionally ).     The survey involved representatives of both sexes that gives us a picture of how the choice of food depends on sex. However, the number of girls is more than the number of boys and this can lead to distortion of the survey results and its further application to the entire population of teenagers.

Reliability

            Interrater reliability – the measurements were carried out twice and this gives possible good result of the reliability.                                     Using structured questions gives a high chance of repeating the survey with the same result. However, the use of a semi- structured question makes the processing of results very laborious and the results may differ significantly from those presented.

Application

During the survey (training and how the questionnaire was prepared), the characteristics of adolescent and gender psychology were used. So, for example, to interest the participants of the survey, the girls were told about the beauty and the boys about sports, while examples were given with a short-term perspective and the language of the teenagers was used.      

Validity

        Ecological validity is very high, since the survey was conducted in a comfortable natural environment for the respondents. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude the influence of such factors as individual differences. Adolescents in this growth are very dependent on what impression they produce on surrounding peers and the desire to stand out could have an impact on the answers.                                                                                                               The use of semi-structured questions gives interesting results and allows to increase the depth of the research.

 

Ethics

In general, it can be considered good, since permission to conduct a survey was sent to parents and confidentiality was respected (only the names of the respondents were used). However, the use of examples knitted with achievements in sports or beauty could cause moral damage to adolescents who have disabilities or nutritional problems (bulimia, anorexia, hormonal diseases).

 

 

 

 

 

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The following questions are based upon the experiment you conducted during your course:

Describe the aim, procedure, results and conclusion of your study.

            Replication of Stroop’s studies (1935)                                                                       Aim:     Repetition of the original study to determine its reliability and validity.            Procedure: 15 students participated in the study    MidKentCollege, mix gender. For the test, original tables (one to squares of different colours, the second with words indicating colour) were used.

Before the beginning, there was a briefing and a small training. After that the students were divided into pairs. Each student conducted two versions of the tables.

The indicators were measured with a stopwatch promotion and later presented in a common table for analysis.         

The results of the study showed that the average time using Table 2 (with words) is almost twice as high as the average time using a table (with coloured squares). It should also be noted that the characteristic difference in the rates was present for all students regardless of the individual differences of the respondents.

The results of the analysis of the replica and the original experiment are very similar in their mean values. Therefore, we can make a conclusion about high reliability and validity Stroop’s studies (1935).

Evaluate your study in terms of the following:  (criteria 3.2)

Generalisability

The sample of respondents is not very indicative, since a small number of people participated in this study and they are all college students and live in the same area of England. However, since this research was repeatedly duplicated and the total number of respondents and their individual characteristics are represented very widely, one can recognize the high generalisability of the results of this study.

                                                                       

 

Reliability

The study is reliable as it is a repetition of the original study.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Application

Application should be recognized as applicable because for more than 80 years such an investigation was conducted in a clinical setting and showed good results and ease of conduct.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Validity 

Validity is high: for all respondents was given the same instruction, the same tables. The study was conducted at the same time and in the same place. There is good ecological as the research was conducted in a natural and comfortable environment for the respondents.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Explain the ethical considerations needed in the experimental approach to psychology (3.1)

 

Undoubtedly, every psychologist conducting experimental approach wants to make a tangible contribution to science. Nevertheless, the main task is to observe ethical standards during the research. ?he researcher should be responsible for the participants in the experiments during the research – from the initial design to the steps necessary to protect the confidentiality of the research data. The appeal of colleagues, assistants, students and all other employees with the test subjects.

            The researcher should inform the participants about all aspects of the experiment that may affect their desire to participate in it, also answer all questions about other details of the study. The impossibility of getting acquainted with the full picture of the experiment further enhances the responsibility of the researcher for the welfare and dignity of the participants.   Also    the researcher must respect the right of the client to reduce or interrupt his participation in the research process at any time.                                                                                                                                                     

 

Discuss the difficulties that were faced in conducting your own study GRAVE  (3.2)

 

Overall, I evaluate the study as very successful in view of its high validity and practical application, not only as an understanding of the influence of the reading skill, as well as an understanding of the mechanism of the work of voluntary attention. So for example, I found that to the middle of the table (obviously because the work was monotonous), my speed of recognizing the colour slowed and the concentration of attention became weaker. I think that this is a good impulse for a deeper study of the mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary attention and subsequent practical application in the learning process.  However, I would like to note that when summarizing the results of the experiment, I felt not comfortable. Since the results were provided for public discussion on the board, and my result as a user of English as a foreign language was lost to the results of native English users.