i.       
High vs. Low Power Distance

According to the
anthropologist (1980), power distance referred to the degree of inequality and
equality and the extent to which less powerful members expect and accept
unequal power and wealth distribution within a society. Hofstede noted that
high power distance cultures were more likely to follow a caste system that did
not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. He noted also that these
societies tend to have centralized political power and establish tall hierarchies
in organizations (e.g. family and company) with large difference in salaries
and status. In the organizational context, clear distinction in the power and
status between supervisors and subordinate is usually observed, and the
subordinates tend to have little influence on and involvement in the decision
making process. Furthermore, individuals on the higher level of hierarchy
expect obedience and respect; subordinates are expected to be told what to do,
follow the order, and to do exactly what they are expected to do. On the other
hand, low power distance societies de-emphasize the differences between
citizens’ power and wealth, equality and opportunity for everyone is expected
and desired. In the organizational context, low power distance societies have
flatter hierarchies; supervisors are expected to consult subordinates’ ideas
and opinions in daily work; employees tend to have more influence and
involvement in the decision making process; and subordinates and supervisors
are believed to be interchangeable. (Ning 2006)

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

To conclude, in
high power distance cultures, the values of respect to the authority and
acceptance of inequality are emphasized, while in low power distance cultures,
the value of mutual respect and equality are emphasized. (Ning, 2006)

 

    ii.       
Collectivism vs.
Individualism

Collectivism vs. individualism refers to the degree
that the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and
interpersonal relationships, which implies the degree to which individuals are
integrated into groups. Hofstede (1980) suggested that high individualism
societies believed that individuality and individual right were paramount
within the society, and loose interpersonal relationships were easily
developed: individuals were expected to look after themselves and their
immediate family only. Furthermore, these societies place individual
social-economic interests over the group, maintain strong rights to privacy,
nurture strong private opinions, emphasize the political power of voters,
maintain strong freedom of the press, and profess the ideologies of
self-actualization, self-realization, self-government, and freedom. High
collectivism societies believe everyone should take responsibility for fellow
members of their group to maintain a harmonious interdependence, and the
interpersonal relationships are collective and close. In these societies,
individuals are integrated from birth into cohesive groups (e.g. extended
family and organizations), which protect them in exchange of unquestioning
loyalty. High collectivism societies place collective social-economic interests
over the individual, favor laws and rights for groups over individuals, and
profess the ideologies of harmony and consensus, and individuals are expected
to behave in pursuit of collective interests for all the members of the group.
(Ning, 2006) Thus, to sum up, the values of loyalty and