In 1441, 4 slaves
brought to Portugal and in 400 years they were 10 to 15 million. All Africans
were forcefully taken from Africa and sent across Atlantic to work for the
colonies established by the Spanish, Portuguese, The French and the British.
Atlantic Slave trade developed the relationship between Africa and Europe.
European mostly stayed in the west coast of the Africa because there were many diseases
like Yellow fewer or Sleeping Sickness. The slaves came from the interior of
the continent and were often acquired in raids. The people who captured during
the war then transported to the coast. Most of them died before getting to the
coast and who survived, they would be sold to European merchants in exchange
for manufactured clothes and firearms.  The
captives then shipped to the new world for slaver and this is called middle
passage. African traders captured people from different nation and sold them to
the European. In Africa, slave trade created political powers, the centralization
and consolidation of certain nations by enslaving their enemies and selling them
to European, this is called the “gun and the slave cycle”. Since they
controlled the supply of humans, groups like the Dahomey, government system worked
to maximize profit by manipulating the market. As there were increase in slave
trade also increase the cost of slaves during early modern period.

                              The interactions
between ottoman and European is to focus on the role of conflict in the eastern
Mediterranean. In this period, they have many violent interactions. The city
state of Venice, which traded throughout the Mediterranean basin, was especially
important as a port entry for Chinese goods into the European trade. The ottoman-controlled
sea lanes of the Eastern Mediterranean. European attacked on the ottoman empire
to get back their trade but instead the ottoman empire capture 45 out of 90
European ships and 10,000 men. Suleyman played an important role at that time
and gave freedom to travel and trade in ottoman empire to the French who were
hopeless to get in to the system of trade and commodity exchange. He granted
treaty called Capitulations in 1536. These types of contact between European and
ottoman gave Europe with clear option. As they were different in religion, ethnicity
but also most powerful empire that European couldn’t able to force their will
on ottoman empire. Europeans were no longer able to trade with china so they
found alternate routes. One of those routes lay to the west across the Atlantic
while another took the European south and around the southern tip of Africa. The
trade routes extending around the world of the early modern period were developed
in reaction to Ottoman might in the Mediterranean.

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                              After seizing
Constantinople, the ottoman empire has a new opportunity to create a new capital
city. They named the city Istanbul. Istanbul located at the center of many
critical important trade route connected to Europe and China. It also dominates
the water route between Aegean Sea and the Black Sea and control major entrance
of northern European trade. They didn’t control trade but also want to make
Istanbul vibrant and majestic royal city. With the expansion of ottoman empire,
Islamic world also cover large section of world. Revenue earned after
controlling Istanbul are very huge that make the empire very powerful and rich
states in 16th century. At that time Istanbul is like a New York or
Los Angeles for the Islamic world that all leaders of Muslim community wanted
to live. The Suleyman built the Suleymaniye Mosque opposite to the older byzantine
Christian cathedral, which also converted into mosque after 1453.  Constantinople had 30,000 population when
ottoman empire controls that city and after 150 year it had 400,000 population
which twice the size of London city at that time. Istanbul was important influential
city between European and ottoman empire during early modern period.