In regression models of both product categories, the findings indicate a strong, positive connection between product involvement and brand loyalty with p-value smaller than 0.01. Sales promotions are categorized into consumer franchise building (CFB) and non-franchise building (non-CFB). CFB is comprised of sales promotion activities that develop and reinforce brand identity by communicating distinctive brand attributes. Consumer franchise-building promotions are designed to increase brand preference in the  long-term. Non-CFB promotions attempt to stimulate instant sales or shorten the purchasing decision process. Therefore, CFB promotions are likely to to be strategically driven, while non-CFB promotions may be more driven by short-term tactic goals1.  Despite the short-term effect on sales of non-CFB promotions, if high level of involvement mixed with high level of deal inclination, non-CFB promotions can result in brand equity2. In consumer behavior study, the idea of involvement has been used as an explanatory variable3.                       

Solomon stated that sales promotions have been constructed to enhance product involvement4. The congruency, therefore, need to be established to impact brand loyalty. Hence, it is suggested that future researches take into account the impact of each specific type of sales promotion on product involvement and brand loyalty. Chan et al., Liao, Palazo?n-Vidal and Delgado-Balleter claimed that for all product categories, sales promotions are not always equally impactful. Likewise, DelVecchio et al. believed that a promotion’s impact on the brand preference depends on the nature of the promotion and the promoted products5.

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Moreover, future studies must diversify the product categories to be analyzed to widen the spectrum for comparison.