Introduction

A wild fire began as news of sexual assault spread in homes and communities. Some people are ignorant to what is happening around them while others are starting  to realize how deep this issue has embedded itself into our society and history.   However, the discoveries of  staggering rates of sexual assault on women on school campuses, factors that lead to sexual assault on school campuses and victimization among college women can create a chain reaction that breathes life into change. Sexual assault has been recognized as a major public health problem and social concern among college students for several decades (Sutton & Simmons, 2014a). The counter actions of the universities does not seem to resonate throughout the campus which can be observed by the continuation of sexual assault on college  women. Several decades can be more then enough time to root out this issue but it is still alive and thriving. Sutton and Simmons, highly respected researchers, are calling for greater attention to reduce the numbers of women falling victim to the monstrosity known as sexual assault. Every 98 seconds an American is sexually assaulted. (“Your 2017 Guide to Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month,” 2017) The tragic truth this statistic entails, sheds light on how expansive this plague has grown. Women who are students can be rendered soundless and even ignored when it comes to these situations. This focus has largely overlooked students who act as agents of change, mobilizing to alter campus norms around consent, prevention, survivor support, and institutional response ( Krause, Miedema, Woofrer & Yount , 2017). Researchers and concerned parties are striving to bring more attention towards the disregard of sexually assaulted women on college campuses, the causes and effects of sexual assault, and the victimization of women on college campuses.

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Evaluation of Sexual Assault

The lack of attention and justice on the issue of sexual assault has caused it to go unchecked for centuries. Now that many college women are speaking up and filing complaints, the schools are bound to address the issue. College and university presidents have called this trend “deeply disturb­ing,”4″unacceptable,”5 and “profoundly troubling.”6 (Smith, 2017). However, they do not seem to provide a clear solution that differentiates from their damage control tactics that aid in preserving their reputations. These powerful individuals such as college Dean’s and principals  within colleges are in influential positions to assess the situation and formulate plans that will reduce the staggering rates of sexual assault in their campuses altogether. Facing a situation is more beneficial than avoiding it. In response to the inadequacies of many universities to effectively address this problem, researchers, policy makers, and the public alike have recently called for greater attention to reducing the high rates of sexual violence against college women. (Sutton & Simmons, 2014b) When a set of circumstances are profoundly wrong, there are bound to be several individuals who take note and action in the hopes of eradicating it. These brave individuals  are not  afraid to let their voices be heard and are also not afraid to speak for the voices that are too quiet to be heard. Nonetheless, there is a third party,  the most important party in this situation, that are the  most quietest and unheard. More than 90% of sexual assault victims on college campuses do not report sexual assault.(“Statistics About Sexual Violence,” 2015) Hearing about, reading about or researching about sexual assault is immensely different from experiencing it because you can only imagine what these individuals have been through and why they are so silent.

 

 

Causes and Effects of Sexual Assault

Factors that lead to something and factors that are the reason for it remain  interchangeable. The causes of sexual assault and the effects that occur after it has taken place can be due to and lead to a numerous number of factors. Researchers are working through quite a few ideas to map out these uncharted vicinities. In fact, four highly respected university members,  have dedicated their time and resources into finding answers to these disregarded questions. Sexual assaults of college women often include alcohol and/or drugs (Fisher, Daigle, & Cullen, 2010; Koss & Dinero, 1989); 35.2% of college women who reported sexual assaults in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) also reported that the offender was using drugs and/or alcohol at the time of the assault (Rennison & Addington, 2014). Drugs and alcohol are identified as the prime suspects responsible for sexual assault occurrences among women. The perpetrator might try indicate that they were under the influence but that doesn’t change the fact that sexual assault is a crime and violating, whether under the influence or not. Findings suggest that unwanted sexual contact appears to be most prevalent on college campuses, including sexual coercion, followed by incapacitated rape, and completed or attempted forcible rape ( Fedina, Holmes, Backes, 2016). The majority of survivors (80%), however, do not report the assault to university authorities (Cantor et al., 2015; Sinozich & Langton, 2014). Therefore, universities may be underestimating the rate of sexual assault on campus (Cantor et al., 2015; Sinozich & Langton, 2014. An effect of the college environment being familiarized with sexual assault incidents leads the victims to become discouraged of speaking out which is why some colleges and universities sexual assault complaint rates are low.

 

 

Victimization

Women have underwent great amounts of oppression and in equality but still persevered through those obstacles. However, the most challenging one of them  is emotions. Women are generally known to be more sensitive and nurturing when compared to men. , Dilillo & Messman- states , “Specifically, adult women with a history of CSA report greater difficulty identifying and regulating emotional states, more problems accepting their emotions, and increased experiential avoidance when compared to non-victimized women”  The line between reality and the unimaginable can be blurred just as quickly as one blinks and the true hardship lies within psychiatric ability to be strong and seek help. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration oral, anal, vaginal, other, or completed penetration). Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively), although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%).(Wilson, 2017) Women lead with the highest rates but that is unfortunate in these circumstance. Some college offer services on campus that can help sexually assaulted victims but they are hardly ever used.  Although prevalence rates of sexual victimization were high (4.7–58%), rates of service utilization were lower (0–42%) (Stoner & Cramer, 2017). These ratios are a cause for concern because these women have gone through something life changing and should have the right help in order to progress and in time get justice served.

Conclusion

Tragedies like sexual assault can taint the future generations if actions aren’t taken to reduce and remove this issue from society. The morals and principles that were not taught to the generation should be taught to the younger generations. The number of women who  are sexually assaulted on school grounds is truly appalling but those rates are steadily growing. However, Researchers have begun searching for more knowledge and awareness on the issue that is sexual assault on women on school campuses. They bring attention to the disregard of sexually assaulted women on college campuses, the causes and effects of sexual assault, and the victimization of women on college campuses. No issue or matter is ever to small to be brought to the light and that is where the information/services needed will be available. If none aren’t, then it only takes one brave voice to speak up and raise the other voices until they receive all the help that they need.