IntroductionParthenogenesis is define as, to give a birth to offspring without fertilization. It’s a general formof asexual reproduction. It can be seen in lower organisms and plants. It implicates the birth ofan individual without fertilization. It’s a continuous evolutionary strategy that some organismshave hired to maintain a colony. There are benefits to organisms that exploit parthenogenesis,like reproduction without the use of direct fertilization.HistoryIn 18 th century, the naturalist and philosophor, Charles Bonnet discovered the Parthenogenesis.The word Parthenogenesis derived from the Greek words “Parthenos” means “virgin” and”genesis” means “creation”.Mostly found inLower vertebrates, invertebrates, some plants etc. Most animal species that showsparthenogenesis can also shows a phase of sexual reproduction. When the environmentalcondition are good and there plenty of food that can sustain the generation of large number ofindividuals, animals prefer to go for parthenogenesis. And when the optimal condition changes,they shift to sexual reproduction and that gives variation in genetic material.Parthenogenesis can be seen in insects like aphids during spring and summer. In some speciesof ants, bees, and wasps, the competence to reproduce by both sexually and asexually is a partof establishing sexual differences.In honeybees, four unfertilized eggs are present. When they copulate, one egg fertilize andgerminates normally, while the other three germinate in the haploid form, without the need ofthem being fertilized. The key thing here is, without the fertilization of one egg, the other threewill not germinate. Hence fertilization crucial, but not necessarily of all the eggs. This isimportant to regulate population from increasing too dramatically, which will affect the hivediversity. The haploid bees are generally the workers of the hive. As this is not a trueparthenogenesis as the one egg gets fertilized.Parthenogenesis in humansIs parthenogenesis possible in humans? Theoretically YES, but practically the chances ofparthenogenesis in humans is very very less. It could occur in human females but it remainsunrecognized. If a couple has only daughters like mother, each of which would may carry onlyher(mother’s) genes. There could be a chances that she has a husband but not aware of herown situation.In the mid-1950's, the British medical journal Lancet published an editorial pointing out that itcould be difficult to establish suitable criteria for recognition of parthenogenesis in humans.Two different mechanisms exist by which a female could reproduce without contact with amale: (1) budding from somatic cells of the mother, (2) autofertilization. In the first situation,mother and daughter would be perfect clones, genetically identical. In the second process, themother would have to produce a sperm which would inseminate her own egg. Mother anddaughter would not be genetically identical although the daughter would possess a subset ofher mother's genes, possibly being homozygous at some loci where her mother washeterozygous.┬áParthenogenetic Activation MethodologiesBefore knowing about the parthenogenetic activation methods, we need to know about thebiochemistry of Oocyte activation.Oocyte activation processNonfertilized Egg/Oocyte stays remain at the metaphase2 until a stimulus, which may comefrom the fertilizing sperm. When the sperm and egg fused together, it triggers the secretion ofCa +2 and meiosis reactivation. Ca +2 will suppress the action of the metaphase promoting factorand it lead to metaphase to anaphase development (segregation of sister chromids). If the Ca +2doesn’t secret, the activation and subsequent embryo development failed to occur. Inmammals, this intracellular Ca +2 triggered by secretion of phospholipase C-zeta by sperm.Regardless of the identical nature of the sperm factor liable for bringing out the Ca 2+ oscillations,its presence is preeminent for successful oocyte activation and embryonic development.Theactivating agents tries to mimic like sperm, used for parthenogenesis, which triggers the Ca +2secretion.TechniquesThere are plenty of artificial stimuli have been found as agents to trigger the activation processin Oocytes. And that can be divided into the two groups, depending upon the nature of theactivating stimulus. From the employed agents only Sr +2 can produce repetitive Ca + 2 transients.We can activate the oocytes through intracytoplasmic Ca +2 elevations, but it’s not a singlemethod that activates the oocytes from every species. Thus, parthenogenetic activation actionshave conferred changing degrees of success, regarding activation rates and subsequentembryonic development according to the protocol employed and the species.As we know that how embryos are developed after fertilization of oocyte and the threepossible parthenotes that may result according to the activation protocol employed tostimulate exit from oocyte, in the absence of a fertilizing sperm.For the parthenogenesis, treat the oocyte with activating agents like Srcl 2 , ethanol, Ca +2 isfollowed by another chemical 6-DMAP or cytochalasin B, which blocks the second bodyextrusion. The appearing parthenote is a “pseudodiploid” heterozygous embryo, which has twosister chromatids of each maternal chromosome present in the M2 oocyte.ConclusionIt is clear that parthenogenesis in human can’t be possible as of now, but it can