Is it a
causation or correlation that leads to drug abuse in adolescents?

Introduction

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The adolescent age is where people get influenced
easily and get into activities where they engage into abruptive activities.
These activities influence them into addictive behaviour which again lead to
repetitive ‘habit’. People don’t know the following consequence and get
vulnerable into it. Vulnerable here is that the exposed subjects are at of more
possibility of getting into the habit than others. There are no said causes of
this addictive behaviour but there is a strong relation between genetics, social,
physical/sexual abuse or even prenatal abuse. Even environmental factors are
said to play a key role into it.

The basic concept is that the brain adapts to a
transition to a voluntary to a compulsive behaviour, these will be mentioned
later down the literature review. The idea of this topic was inducted because
of us as students are in a vulnerable group. Personally ‘I’ doing medicine it
is seen that students abuse the substances and get influenced so by they lose
their goal to achieve.

The including and excluding factors with regard to the essay

The main factors included into the essay are the target
population that of adolescent age group from 18-24 years old. Other population
groups are not included as addiction is a common factor which prevails among
all ages. The choice of substance is not limited as subjects are prone to use
many substances. The articles used are from renowned websites and they mainly
include PsyOrg, Science Direct, and Lancet of Neurology etc. The articles are
in English and are from the last 10 years of date as addiction is an evolving
topic.

The essay should exclude age group criteria and the
substance in general.  There shall not be
other comorbidity included into it as it may lead variable results.

Essay written on the basis of secondary data collection
as mentioned websites.

 

Literature review

So, studies have found out that there are environmental
and genetic in the inheritance  of
substance use disorder.so there is no specific gene for alcoholism rather there
are multiple gene with some effects .Biological and gene-environment
interaction makes the individual less susceptible to development of complex
disorder. So there are many causes of use of drug abuse in adolescents some say
that it is because of genetic some say it is because of environmental factors
and some tells us it is  because of the
brain so in this we are going to discuss all the three. Addictions are diverse
and complex disease that are shared by genetic and environmental factors. So
both genetic and environment contribute to initiation use of addictive agents.
The outcomes of addictions are very bad ,some are able to stop and control
their addiction and some cant. Alcohol use is a major health problem ,adolescents
who drink alcohol have many negative outcomes like social legal problems
unwanted unprotected sexual activity this leads many health problems. Adolescents
who drink more alcohol have changes in the brain development that might have
effects frequent use of alcohol leads to liver ,neurologic and cardiovascular
diseases and some even experience psychiatric problems like depression ,anxiety,and
antisocial personality disorder.so what leads this adolescents to do such
things. In this genetic factor plays a role like some  adolscents  parents who are addicted to drinking and all
such activites their genes may pass to the generations and leads to this
negative kind of outcomes. In USA it is found that more young people drink
alcohol than tobacco and other stuffs. Although it is illegal to drink alcohol
before the age 21 some young people drink alcohol because of genetic and
environment factors.In 2005 there were more than 145,000 emergency roooms
visited by youth aged 15-20 for injuries and other condition lined with
alcohol. Apart from alcohol many youths are addicted drugs like
cocaine,heroin,synthetic marijuana and many more. Many youths are addicted to
this beause of environmental factors like when youths see someone taking this
stuff they feel like trying those stuffs because they are more eager to know what
is there in it and how it feels like to try those things,so this apparently
leads many youths to addiction of drugs.This is because of bad surrondings with
surronded by bad friends and others like just want to know what it feels like
taking drugs.In case of marijuana some say that it is good for our health like
it cures cancer and some oppose it by saying that it is not good for our health
so there are many articles regarding this telling marijuana is good or bad.

 

 

Environmental factors include families,social,individual.
Some factors in teen lives that may affect the decision like media influence
some people on tv talk about drugs and other related drugs so some teenagers
might be curious to know about the drugs. Peer pressure can be tough to resist
because if your friend does it so chances of you doing it are high. Feeling
lonely or being bullied if people are lonely they feel like trying and addicted
to it and some teenagers think that use of this drug may help them cope with
hard times. Being around drugs so if your around with someone who use them you
may start to feel like taking it because eveyone is taking them. Family risk
factor include child maltreatment (abuse) there are many families who abuse and
maltreat the child so this leads child to emotional depression and stress so
because of this these child think that taking 
drugs may help them to overcome this. Physical and sexual abuse are
associated with alcohol, drugs, heroin, marijuana . So people who are dealing
with physical sexual abuse have more chances of taking it. So taking of drugs
in large amount frequently leads to many health problems associated with brain.
Social factors contribute to increased risk to adolescents which include
popularity bullying assosiated with gangs and family influence are included
simultaneously. And another important factor is child neglense or neglect  include were child caregiver does not provide
proper living necessities , clothing, protection, food, proper health care. So
studies have found out that victims of child neglect have increased risk of
trying drugs because there is no one to ask or question them because of their
neglect.

 

Another important factor is the brain which is
cognitive development

 Where the brain
undergoes changes during adolescence. The brain development changes because of
stressful circumstances , social tension, maltreatment that occur during
critical stages in adolecence . As it is related to brain development it
decreases brain gray matter increases white matter and dopaminergic connections
with the limbic system. so the prefontal cortex play a important role in
decision making based on memory and reward system. During adolesence it
undergoes changes in thickness, structure and dopamergic fibres. So the
important factor in deciding of taking drugs is brain.

According to me the reason for taking or getting
addicted to it is not the genetic or environment factor but they play a small
role in it but the main reason is the brain which takes the decision of doing
all such activities in life.

CONCLUSION

However rather strict regulations on tobacco alcohol
drugs in some countries adolescents still report access to the tobacco alcohol
and drugs.

With the
popularity of smartphones and tablets, internet use has become more popular.
Since internet has become integral part of life some childeren may misuse it so
we have keep on monitoring them. Studies related to demograpic may be effective
in generating results and thus will be useful in generating and assessing
prevention and intrevention efforts. However if we monitor or have eye on them
they still have the access to use of drugs because we are living in 21 century
where anything is possible.

 

Appendix

Reference

1-Teen Drug Abuse: Causes, Signs & Treatment
Options.” Next Generation Village. Accessed January 21, 2018. https://www.nextgenerationvillage.com/drugs/.

2-Abuse, National Institute on Drug. “Why do
adolescents take drugs?” NIDA. Accessed January 21, 2018. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/frequently-asked-questions/why-do-adolescents-take-drugs.

3-Tracy, Natasha. “Drug Abuse Causes: What is the
Cause of Drug Abuse? – Drug Addiction – Addictions.” HealthyPlace.
Accessed January 21, 2018. https://www.healthyplace.com/addictions/drug-addiction/drug-abuse-causes-what-is-the-cause-of-drug-abuse/.

4-“Drug Abuse Causes.” Project Know. August
16, 2016. Accessed January 21, 2018. https://www.projectknow.com/research/drug-abuse-causes/.

5-February 13, 2017 by The Partnership. “Top 8
Reasons Why Teens Try Alcohol and Drugs.” Partnership for Drug-Free Kids –
Where Families Find Answers. Accessed January 21, 2018.
https://drugfree.org/parent-blog/top-8-reasons-teens-try-alcohol-drugs/.