“Our
children will enjoy in their homes electrical energy too cheap to meter”
(Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, 1954). ?lth?ugh, th? w?rd? r?f?rr?d t? ?t?m??
?n?rg?, n?w?d??? ?n? ??uld ??rt??nl? r?f?r th? qu?t? t? ??l?r ?n?rg? du? t?
?r?m???ng ?r?gr??? ?n ?r?? ?f ?rg?n?? ?h?t?v?lt????, wh??h f??u??? ?n
?r?du?t??n ?f ? t??hn?l?g? th?t h?? ??n??d?r?bl? l?w?r ???t ??t?nt??l.

An
organic solar cell or plastic solar cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic
electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic
polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge
transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect. Most organic photovoltaic cells are polymer
solar cells.01

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Instead
of citing loads of texts about the history of organic photovoltaics enough
useful information about its history can be found in references 26 to 32, I decided to build the body of this report
on 3 major axes; First axis is the potentials that nominate organic
photovoltaics to be the worldwide major provider of electricity due to its
exceptional advantages rising from the fact that the molecules used in organic
solar cells are solution-processable at high throughput and are cheap,
resulting in low production costs to fabricate a large volume. Combined
with the flexibility of organic molecules,
organic solar cells are potentially cost-effective for photovoltaic
applications. Molecular engineering (e.g. changing the length and functional group of polymers) can
change the band gap, allowing for electronic tunability. The optical absorption coefficient of
organic molecules is high, so a large amount of light can be absorbed with a
small amount of materials, usually on the order of hundreds of nanometers.

Second
axis, is the device architecture and operational mechanism of state of the art
organic photovoltaics (OPVs), its structure categories and the wide variety of
available materials to choose. Third and last, the future aspects to overcome
the obstacles that prevent OPVs from being no. 1 source of energy worldwide,
these obstacles mainly emits from the disadvantages associated with organic
photovoltaic cells, like the low efficiency, low stability and low strength compared to
inorganic photovoltaic cells such as silicon solar cells.

 

??. ??l?r
?n?rgy ?n ? br??f

Wh?n
th? gl?b?l w?rm?ng ?nd d??l?t??n ?f ??mm?n ?n?rgy ?u??l???, ?u?h ?? f????l fu?l?
?t?rt?d thr??t?n?ng th? b?l?n?? ?f hum?n l?f?, gr??t ?tt?nt??n w?? dr?v?n t?w?rd?
th? ?lt?rn?t?v? ?n?rgy ??ur???, f?v?r?bly th? r?n?w?bl? ?n??. ?m?ng numb?r ?f ?lt?rn?t?v?
??ur???, ?u?h ?? w?nd ?n?rgy, hydr??l??tr?? ?n?rgy, b??m??? ?nd g??th?rm?l ?n?rgy,
??l?r ?n?rgy h?? th? h?gh??t ?m?unt ??t?nt??lly ?v??l?bl? ?n ??rth. ? v?ry ?m?ll
fr??t??n ?f ?un ??w?r (l??? th?n 0.02 %) r???h?ng th? ??rth ?urf??? ??n ??v?r
th? wh?l? ?n?rgy d?m?nd ?f th? w?rld. Y?t, by th? ?nd ?f y??r 2008, ??l?r t??hn?l?gy
b???d ??ur??? h?v? b??n ?r?v?d?ng ?nly 0.1 % ?f ?ll th? ?n?rgy ??n?um?d by m?n ????rd?ng
t? R?n?w?bl? ?n?rgy ??l??y N?tw?rk (R?N21) r???rt.02

Th?r?
?r? v?r??u? ??l?r t??hn?l?g??? f?r h?rv??t?ng th? ?un ?n?rgy, wh??h ??n b? d?v?d?d
t? tw? ??t?g?r???: ?????v? ??l?r ?nd ??t?v? ??l?r. ?n ?x?m?l? ?f ?????v? t??hn?qu?
??n b? th? d???gn?ng ?f ? bu?ld?ng ?n ?u?h ? w?y th?t ?t ?ff????ntly h?rv??t? ?nd
?t?r?? th? ?un ?n?rgy ?n th? bu?ld?ng. ??t?v? ??l?r t??hn?l?g??? ?r? th? ??l?r
th?rm?l ??ll??t?r? ?r ?h?t?v?lt??? (?V) d?v????. H?w?v?r, th? f??t??t ?nd m??t ?ff????nt
d?r??t ??nv?r???n ?f ?un l?ght ?nt? ?l??tr???l ?n?rgy ?? ?????bl? ?nly thr?ugh ?h?t?v?lt???
d?v????.

Th? ?h?t?v?lt???
(?V) ?ff??t d????v?r?d by B??qu?r?l 03 ??
th? b???? ?hy????l ?r?????, by wh??h th? ??m???ndu?t?r m?t?r??l ??nv?rt? ?l??tr?m?gn?t??
r?d??t??n (?un l?ght) ?nt? ?l??tr?? ??w?r. Wh?l? ?ur ?nv?r?nm?nt ?? ?urr?und?d
w?th ?bund?nt ??l?r ??w?r, th? ?h?t?-V?lt??? t??hn?l?gy ?? ?t?ll t?? ?x??n??v?
t? b???m? ? ?r?m?ry ?n?rgy ??ur??. Th?r?f?r?, th? m??n t??k ?f th? ??l?r ??ll f??ld
?? t? d?v?l?? ? t??hn?l?gy, wh??h ??n ?r?v?d? ?h??? ?V ?r?du?t? ?nd m?k? th? ?h?t?-??nv?r???n
?f ?un l?ght ?nt? ?l??tr???l ??w?r ???t ?ff????nt.

 

???.
 ??l?r ??ll G?n?r?t??n?

?? f?r
?h?t?v?lt??? d?v???? (??l?r ??ll?) h?v? b??n ??t?g?r?z?d ?n thr?? g?n?r?t??n? ????rd?ng
t? th? t?m? ??qu?n?? th?y ?t?rt?d ?l?y?ng b?g r?l? ?n th? ??l?r ??ll f??ld.04

·                    
Th?
f?r?t g?n?r?t??n (1?t G): ??l?r ??ll? ?r?
l?rg? ???l?, ??ngl? jun?t??n d?v????. M??t ?f th? ?r?du?t??n ?? b???d ?n ??l???n
w?f?r? ?n?lud?ng ??ngl? ?ry?t?l ?nd mult?-?ry?t?ll?n? ??l???n. ?b?ut 90 % ?f th?
?urr?nt ?h?t?v?lt??? ?r?du?t??n ?? b???d ?n f?r?t g?n?r?t??n. Th? ?ff????n?y ?f
th? ??ngl? jun?t??n ??ll? h?? ? th??r?t???l l?m?t ?f ?b?ut 30% (th? ?h??kl?y–Qu?????r
l?m?t) 05 ?nd ?urr?ntly th?
??mm?n ??l???n w?f?r b???d d?v???? ?h?w n??rly 20% ?ff????n?y w?th th? h?gh??t
r???rt?d

?ff????n????
r???h?ng 25%. Y?t, th? ???t ??r ?r?du??d 1 W?tt ?f ??w?r ?? n??rly 4 t?m?? h?gh?r
th?n ??nv?nt??n?l ?n?rgy ?r???? du? t? th? h?gh ???t ?f th? m?t?r??l (h?lf ?f
th? ???t ?f 1G d?v???? ?? th? ??l???n w?f?r) ?nd ???t ?f ?r?du?t??n t??hn?l?g???.
?lth?ugh, th? ?r??? ??nt?nu?u?ly g??? d?wn ?l?ng w?th th? ?r?gr??? ?f th? t??hn?l?gy,
th? 1G ?r?du?t? w?ll ?r?b?bly r???h th??r ?r??? l?m?t b?f?r? ??h??v?ng th? ??m??t?t?v?
l?v?l ?n th? m?rk?t.

·                    
Th? ????nd
g?n?r?t??n (2nd G): ??l?r ??ll? ?r?
?ddr????ng th? ???t ???u? ?nd th? ?r?m?ry t??k ?? t? d??r???? th? ?m?unt ?f ?x??n??v?
m?t?r??l u??d ?n th? ?r?du?t??n ?r????? wh?l? k????ng th? ?ff????n?y ?f th? d?v???
h?gh. Th? f?r?m??t ???r???h ?? ?r?du??ng th?n f?lm ??l?r ??ll? ?n l?w ???t ?ub?tr?t??
(?u?h ?? gl???).

 

D?ff?r?nt t??hn?qu??
?r? ut?l?z?d f?r ?r?du?t??n ?r????? ?u?h ?? ??lut??n d?????t??n, v???r d?????t??n,
?l??tr??l?t?ng ?nd ?t?. M??t ?u?????ful m?t?r??l? f?r 2nd G ?r? ?m?r?h?u?
??l???n, ?u?n(G?)??2 (??G?), ?dT?/?d?, wh??h ?r? b??ng d?????t?d ?n th?n ?ub?tr?t??.
D?v???? b???d ?n th??? m?t?r??l? ??n d?l?v?r l?b ?ff????n???? u? t? 19 %, but
th? m?dul? ?ff????n???? ?r? r???h?ng ?nly 14 % du? t? d?ff??ult??? ?n ?r?du??ng
l?rg? ???l? un?f?rm f?lm?.06

?lth?ugh
th?n f?lm t??hn?l?gy ??n ??gn?f???ntly d??r???? th? ?r???? f?r ?V?, 2G ??l?r ??ll?
w?ll ?l?? h?t ??rt??n ?r??? l?m?t? ??r w?tt du? t? ?ff????n?y l?m?t? ?nd th? m?t?r??l
???t?.

Th?
th?rd g?n?r?t??n (3rd G): Th? ?lt?rn?t?v? w?y
t? g?t th? ???t d?wn ?? t? ?n?r???? th? ?ff????n?y by mult??l? ?t??k?ng ?f ??l?r
??ll?. 3G ??l?r ??ll? ?ntr?du?? th? ?d??