According to Dunleavy (2017), the Prime Minister is also called the premier head of the government in a country with a parliamentary or semi-presidential political system. In such systems, the Prime Minister is of utmost importance. Moreover, the PM has the power to command the majority of the cabinet, especially the legislative (in the lower house in a bicameral system), to remain in office. Merriam Webster (2017) defines a Prime Minister as the chief minister of a ruler or state and the official head of a cabinet or ministry, especially in the chief executive of a parliamentary government.
According to BBC News (2017), a state visit is a formal visit done by a head of state representing his/her country and is normally done at the invitation of the highest ranking official of the host country. A state visit is a grand occasion, and not just a ceremonial affair. It has a political purpose and is used by the government of the host country to further seek partnership with the invited party. Once the location and dates are agreed on, both governments of the involved countries will talk about the detailed schedule.
According to Rocket Lawyer (2017), bilateral agreements come up when two people or groups agree on a contract. Most business and personal agreements can be considered basic forms of bilateral agreements.
Examples of bilateral agreements are present in everyday life. You are entering this type of agreement everytime you make a purchase at your favorite shop and checkout a book from your library. In both examples, you’ve guaranteed a certain action to another person or party as respondence to their action.
Davao City – the Philippines’ Little Japan
According to Dacumos (2012), the Japanese culture influence has long been evident in Davao City. That is why Davao City is tagged as the Philippines’ Little Japan since before World War II, up to this time. There are numerous Japanese people residing in Davao’s Japan Town and Little Tokyo in Mintal – most of them now considered citizens of the Philippines. They also own several business establishments in the city, most of which are located in Chinatown. Davao City has the largest Japanese community in the country.
The implication, in logic, is a relationship between two propositions in which the second is a logical consequence of the first. This is something that is suggested, or happens, indirectly. For instance, when you left the gate open and the dog escaped, you were guilty by implication. Moreover, implications are effects or consequences that may happen in the future.
Japan, Philippines Sign Several Agreements to Enhance Bilateral Ties
President Rodrigo Duterte and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe witnessed the signing of several agreements aimed at enhancing cooperation between the two countries. First is the exchange of notes for the grant of economic and social development program. This note involves the grant of 600 million yen for high-speed boats and other counter terrorism equipment for the Philippine Coast Guard.A Memorandum of Cooperation on the low carbon growth partnership joint crediting mechanism was also signed. This tie up involves the creation of a joint committee to establish the basis through which the Philippines and Japan will promote investments and use of technologies, product systems services and infrastructure to achieve low carbon growth in the Philippines. Also signed was the Memorandum of Cooperation between the Philippine Coast Guard and the Japanese Coast Guard that aims to enhance maritime cooperation to promote maritime safety, security and marine environment protection (GovPh, 2017).
“Abe and I had a fruitful discussion on issues of mutual interest and we have a shared interest in keeping respective waters safe and secure from any threat” (Duterte, 2017).
Duterte (as cited in GovPh, 2017) peace and development in Mindanao will be a priority for both countries noting that he and Abe reaffirmed the need to expedite efforts to bring just and lasting peace and development in the southern region, work together in pursuing a comprehensive approach in the war against the illegal drugs trade that welcomed Japan’s interest in supporting measures to address the tremendous social cost of drug addiction which includes rehabilitation.
PH, JP Ink Rehab Plan for Addicts
The governments of the Philippines and Japan have signed a cooperation agreement to support the health component of the Duterte administration’s war on drugs, Japanese Ambassador Kazuhide Ishikawa told the Makati Business Club.
The Japanese envoy noted that the program involves developing treatment facilities, formulating treatment programs, developing human resources, and conducting promotional activities. During his state visit, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe vowed to give the Philippines one trillion yen or less than $9 billion as official development assistance, which will include help in the form of facilities and treatment program (PNA, 2017).
Japan – Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA):
Towards a Framework for Regional Economic Integration
With less than two years after its ratification, many of the economic gains expected under JPEPA have yet to be realized. It is the first bilateral free trade agreement entered into by the Philippines and the performance and experience with JPEPA are crucial in determining the prospects for negotiated trade agreements with the country. The Philippines cannot afford to slow down with the pace of reform and needs to march aggressively alongside its neighbors in East Asia, which is leading the move towards regional integration (Medalla, Vale & Balboa, 2010).
Freeze More than a Century of Davao-Japan Friendship
Davao has always been a special place for many Japanese. Local old timers in Toril district could share anecdotes about their childhood days looking up to certain Japanese businessmen growing abaca in the area. Abaca is a close relative of the banana plant – native to the Philippines. Also called Manila hemp, abaca fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes. Abaca plantation workers from Japan arrived in Davao in the early 1900s. Like the Filipinos who went to Hawaii to work in pineapple plantations, the overseas Japanese workers came here to seek greener pasture. Until the end of the Second World War, abaca propped Japan and Davao’s economic growth (Castillo, 2017).
Philippine- Japan National Perceptions from the 1900s to the Present:
Socio- Psychological Analysis
The time before it was said that the Philippine-Japan relations began earlier than the middle of the 16th century. By the time the Spaniards came, there was already a sizeable group of Japanese in different parts of the Philippine Islands conducting trade in silks, woolens, cotton, indigo and pearls. The Japanese government established a consulate in Manila in 1888 for purposes of establishing trade relations with the Philippines. At that time, there were only 30 Japanese in the Philippines. Aside from those who came in groups to work on government projects, there were also those who came on their own, lured by their successful relatives and acquaintances. A good example of this is Kanegae Seitaro who came to the Philippines when he was 16. He had two uncles who were doing small business in the Philippines (Samonte, 2000).
Helping Areas in Mindanao is One of Japan’s Priorities in PH
One of the main pillars of Japan’s ODA is assisting conflict areas in Mindanao.
According to PSA, 10 out of the 16 poorest regions in the country are in Mindanao. The consequences of long-term conflict between government forces and Moro rebels have led to poverty and limited access to basic services in these areas.Through various projects, Japan remains firm and committed to alleviating poverty and aiming for sustainable peace in Mindanao and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
JICA started assistance efforts to the region in 2002 through the ARMM Social Fund for Peace, which implemented 32 infrastructure projects and 707 community development projects.
Meanwhile, JICA’s Comprehensive Capacity Development Project (CCDP-B) which addresses the requirements of the proposed Bangsamoro region in its various transition stages. In 2015, the aid agency started 20 quick impact projects worth P73 million (Gavilan, 2016).