4.1. Research approach

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This study adopted a
cross-sectional survey design as the participants were selected from six
different states of South West Nigeria comprising of Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun,
Ondo, and Ekiti. The independent variables are broadly categorized into demo-organizational-comprising
of gender and organizational factors and Psychological factors comprising of personality,
propinquity, emotional intelligence and organizational factors, the mediating
variable is stigma while the dependent variable is discrimination 


Quantitative Study

The survey was conducted in South
west, Nigeria, Comprising of Lagos, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Ondo and Ekiti state. The
sample was drawn from workers population in both public and private sector
organizations comprising of male and female respondents with a minimum age of
18years. Sample was also drawn from People Living with HIV/AIDS in these states



3.2. Research Setting

South West Nigeria
has six states; Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo. It is majorly a Yoruba
speaking area, although there are different dialects even within the same
state.             The
GDP of Nigeria is about N130 trillion Naira  (about $594 billion US dollars) (Wikipedia,
list of African countries by GDP (nominal)). The Southwest, one of the six
geopolitical regions of Nigeria, has an estimated GDP of about N67 trillion
naira (about $305 billion US dollars), more than half of the GDP of the nation.



Ekiti is a state in South west
Nigeria and it was created out of the Old Ondo in 1996. The state has 16 local
government areas, with its capital in Ado-Ekiti, and is divided into four
areas; Ekiti Central, Ekiti North, Ekiti South, and Ekiti West.

Ekiti is an upland zone rising over
250 meters above sea level and it covers a total of 6,353 square kilometers of
land. It is bordered by Ondo in the south and Kwara in the north. Kogi is to
the east and Osun to the west. The major source of occupation and income in the
state is agriculture. Agriculture provides income and employment for about 75%
of the populace.


Lagos state

Lagos state was created in 1967 and
consists of four islands; Lagos Island, Victoria Island, Ikoyi and Iddo. It has
57 local government areas and was the capital of Nigeria until 1976. It is the commercial
nerve-center of Nigeria, having more than half of its industrial investments.
It is a Yoruba speaking, south-western state, but the population consists of
people from all tribes in the country and many different nationalities.



Ogun was created in 1976 with
Abeokuta as the capital. Abeokuta and known as the ‘gateway state’ because of
its strategic position as the link by road, rail, air, and sea to the rest of
the country. The state covers a landmass of 16,409sqkm, and it shares an international
boundary with the Republic of Benin to the west and interstate boundaries with
Oyo state to the north, Lagos and the Atlantic to the south and Ondo state to
the east. It has large number of industrial parks



Ondo was created in 1976 from the
former Western State of Nigeria. It has 19 local government areas. Its
capital is Akure. Ondo is bordered in the north by Ekiti and Kogi; east by Edo
state; west by Oyo and Ogun and in the south by the Atlantic Ocean.



Osun has its capital city at
Oshogbo. Osun has 30 local government areas and is divided into senatorial
districts. The state was created in 1991 from Oyo state. The inhabitants are
mostly employed in the production of hand-woven textiles, leather-work, and
woven mats.



Oyo is in the south-west of Nigeria
and it was among the 3 states carved out of the former Western State of Nigeria
in 1976. The state has 33 local government areas and Ibadan, the capital city.
It has a large number of industries.


3.3. Participants.

for this study comprised of workers in paid employment across both private and
public sector organizations randomly selected from 6 states in South-Western,
Nigeria as well as PLWHA in these states. PLWHA were met at various medical
centers and health institutions in the participating states. Data on
participants’ age, gender, and others relevant variables were obtained through
a questionnaire.


Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Since stigma involves sensing
attitudes (beliefs) and actions (discrimination), instruments measuring both
aspects of perceiving entails the of 
multiple-item and self-report instruments that: (a) measure at least one aspect of perceiving stigma, (b) measure perceived discrimination due to HIV/AIDS, and (c) have scales or subscales that have been factor analyzed
in one or more studies. Excluded were single-item measures of perceived stigma
and discrimination

scales for job search behavior of
PLWHA was included to measure motivation of the victims to work and also
internalized discrimination.


3.3.1 Sampling

Multi-stage sampling techniques adopted
to randomly select 2000
participants in the six south western states in Nigeria. Multistage
sampling technique was considered appropriate because it involves the
combination of two or more sampling techniques, which enhanced method of
selecting the study sample. The sampling method was a combination of
proportionate and simple random sampling techniques.


Based on the information obtained
from National population commission of Nigeria, the workers’ population in
south-western, Nigeria, as at 2006 census, stood at 9,858,454. Out of this
number, Ekiti State had 650,937, Lagos State had 3,579,801, Ogun State had
Ondo State had 1,130,659,
Osun State had 1,070,791,
and Oyo State had 1,997,625
(National Population Commission 2006). Considering
that each state’s working population differs, proportionate sampling technique
was used to select workers from each of the states.


Yamane (1967) method of sample
selection will be used in selecting the sample size for this study. The formula
from Yamane is The
method is used in determining the minimal sample size for a given population
(Yamane, 1967).

  . where N=
Target population/population size`       1 = constant, and e =0.05 level of significance or level of precision.



Applying the figures into the
formula, N =9,858,454, 1 = 1 and e =0.05



The minimal sample size using
Yamane’s (1967) method is 400. This researcher used 2000 participants for this study in order
to enhance the external validity of the results. Apart from this reason, it was
not possible to retrieve all the distributed questionnaires. Proportionate
sampling technique will be used to calculate the number of the questionnaire to
be distributed in each state. The analyses of the number of questionnaires retrieved
per state are presented below.




3.3.2. Methods
of Data Collection

The method of data collection was
quantitative, which involved the use of self-report questionnaires to obtain
responses from the participants.


3.4. Research

The self-report questionnaire
consisted of measures of psychological factors (Propinquity, personality and
emotional intelligence) demo-organizational factors (Gender and organizational
factors), mediating factor ( stigma) in relation to employment discrimination.



A scale developed by Charlene J.
Vetter in 2009 was used to assess search behavior and discrimination concerns
of PLWHA. It assesses concerns of accommodation at work, the concern of
disclosure and anticipated discrimination, job search concerns, concerns of the
impact of works on benefits (Free financial benefits accorded PLWHA by
governments, donor agencies etc) and health-related concerns.




item personality measure (TIPI) was used to
briefly investigate the big five model.

In this study, a 10-item measure of
the Big-Five dimensions is appropriate as the personality trait is not the
major variable of interest.


Intelligence (EI)

The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) model scale was used to measure emotional
intelligence. The scale measures general Emotional Intelligence (EI),
using four sub-scales: emotion perception, utilizing emotions, managing self-
relevant emotions, and managing others’ emotions. It is a 33-item scale.



Stigma shall be assessed using
scale adapted from Day’s Stigma Scale developed independently by Emer Day (2007). It is Likert-type scale was originally developed to
measure 7 factors of attitudes toward people with mental illness: interpersonal
anxiety, relationship disruption, poor hygiene, visibility, treatability,
professional efficacy, and recovery. The scale was validated among college
students and community members; measuring attitudes toward people with mental
illness it is a 28-item scale with a three-factor structure: the first concerns
discrimination, the second disclosure and the third potential positive aspects
of mental illness. Stigma scale scores were negatively correlated with global
self-esteem. The scale was properly adapted to suit the context of this study.


3.5. Procedure for data

Approval to conduct the study was
sought from respective organizations, institutions, and labor organizations
(Private and public) in South west Nigeria and access was granted to offices
and health centers for PLWHA. PLWHA attend counseling sessions at different
medical centers across the region as well as collecting their drugs.  Participation in the study was voluntary.
Participants were well informed and there was the indication of voluntary
participation and they were at liberty to discontinue the research whenever
they felt uncomfortable with any aspect of it. Data were collected during
office hours which are officially 8 am to 5 pm.                                                                                                                      


The researcher used a multi-stage
sampling method, through a combination of proportionate and simple random
sampling techniques to select
2000 participants.  Simple random
sampling technique was used to select the final participants in this study. The
researcher administered the self-report questionnaires to workers and PLWHA
with the help of 6 research assistants and 3 supervisors. In a situation
whereby the researcher was not be permitted to have access to the employees due
to security reasons, the researcher 
worked with Human resources personnel in most public organizations and
health officials in medical centers for PLWHA for further assistance in
administering the questionnaire to the participants



3.6 Data Analysis

Several statistical analyses shall be carried out and these include the
use of:

Ø  Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
using Amos test the relationship between the variables.

Ø  Pie chart

Ø  Correlation analysis

Ø  Regression analysis

All analysis shall be carried out using SPSS 24.0


4. Ethical

the course of carrying out this research, the following research ethics were
considered and followed. First, participation in the study was voluntary and
only the participants who were willing participated. The participants were
assured of the confidentially of their responses and to achieve this, they did
not include their names, departments, and names of their health centers for
PLWHA. The principles of research
ethics were adhered to strictly by the researcher. This was done by informing
the participants that the research posed no physical, psychological, and
emotional harms. However, professional health experts were available  mostly in the case of PLWHA to attend to any
participants who exhibit unhealthy reactions to any of the sensitive aspect of
the study. Any participant who felt uncomfortable with the research at any
point was allowed to discontinue it. In addition to all these, permission to
conduct the study was obtained from the ethics committee of the North-West
University, Mafikeng campus. Apart from this, a written permission to conduct
the study was sought from respective authorities in participating health
institutions in South West states of Nigeria