Tanner (2006) stated that
the first engine-powered double-decker bus appeared in 1923. the Routemaster,
London’s iconic red double-decker bus, they painted their buses red to stand
out from the competition. The Metropolitan Police approved of the red buses;
the colour was so easy to spot acting as a warning to those crossing the
street. The Routemaster was the cause of many accidents as people ran and
jumped onto it whilst it was in motion or jumped off before an official stop.
It was also very challenging for elderly and handicapped people to use easily.
Eventually it was replaced in 2005 by modern double decker buses. 

According to Dugdale (2010)
London Mayor Boris Johnson has made good on his promise to bring back the
Routemaster, However, this is not just a return of the diesel-chugging monster
that contributed to London’s smoggy reputation, but a cleaner, greener–and a
sight dearer–model. And today, the new design, complete with new-generation
hybrid engine, was unveiled to the general public. Costing $420,000 each,
Transport for London claims that the new Routemaster will be 15% more fuel
efficient than existing hybrid buses, 40% more than the existing diesel double
deckers. Thomas Heatherwick, the brains behind the U.K. Pavilion at Shanghai
World Expo was one of the designers involved in the redesign, which includes
three doors, two staircases, one of which has a window that follows the upward
swoop of the stairs. “It suddenly becomes quite distinctive because, as a bus
user, you’ll suddenly be able to see out as you walk up the staircases,” he
said.

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On the other hand 110 years
ago on August 13th, one of the cornerstones of New York City life, the first
metered taxicab, rolled into the city’s streets. Cohen (2017) said before
taxicabs became there iconic transportation, during the mid-1800s hansom cab
became increasingly popular. Joseph Hansom designed a smaller, lighter carriage
that only required one horse to pull it. In fact, these coaches could easily
traverse city streets and travel around traffic.

The metered fare idea was
born, fittingly, in 1907 when Harry N. Allen was smacked with a five dollar
fare ($126.98 in today’s dollars) for being driven a quarter of a mile in a
horse-drawn hansom cab. Allen imported 65 gas-powered cars from France, painted
them red and green, and started the New York Taxicab Company. The elven hues
were replaced by the iconic yellow shortly thereafter so they could be seen
from a distance, and a year later 700 cabs were nowhere to be found when you
wanted one.

Another iconic form of
transportation that is used in some countries is the motorcycle taxi. Perkins
(2015) claims that you can spot the motorcycle taxi in places like India,
Thailand, Brazil, and Paris. Nagpal (2016) added that Baxi, M-Taxi, Bikxie,
N.O.W and Hey Bob are names that have become synonymous with a speedy ride in
Gurgaon or Noida or down the congested roads of Bangalore.

While cities like Mumbai
have banned Motorbike Taxi services due to regulatory concerns, the Haryana
government has allowed bike-taxi services under state contract carriage permit.
Motorcycle taxicabs are also a licensed form of transport in Goa, India. The
concept of two wheeler taxies was initially launched in Bangkok, Thailand, as
“Uber Moto”, when the US ‘ride-hailing’ platform decided to venture
from four to two wheelers. The motorbike taxi option was added as a new service
within the existing application on users’ phones. Uber said that the service
was ‘designed specifically for cities in emerging markets’, where traffic and
congestion is a common and can cause huge delays and inconvenience.

In Montes Claros, Brazil, A
motorcycle that can run solely on sugar cane ethanol, gasoline or a mixture of
both has gone on sale in Brazil, where biofuel cars already dominate the roads,
burning cheaper home-grown energy. Named the “Mix”, the bike is a modified
version of Honda’s CG, a small motorcycle popular with couriers and commuters.
The original gasoline-only version has been the firm’s biggest seller in
Brazil, with sales of more than 30,000 each month. “For motorcycle couriers and
motorcycle taxi riders, this can be an economical alternative because depending
on the price of ethanol, can be recovered very quickly the more you ride,” said
Alfredo Guedes, a spokesman at Honda in Brazil. Brazil is expanding sugar cane
planting rapidly to make ethanol for its fast-growing fleet of flex-fuel cars,
which already account for more than 90 percent of new car sales and have helped
cut pollution in the country of 190 million. Flex-fuel cars, marketed in Brazil
since 2003, have electronics that detect the type of fuel being burned. An
oxygen sensor in the Mix’s exhaust determines what fuel is being burned and
adjusts the action of the fuel injection unit appropriately.

Ethanol-only cars marketed
in Brazil since the 1970s lost popularity because the price of the fuel rose,
temporarily erasing any savings, and they were hard to fire up in cold weather.
But flex-fuel allows for any mix of gasoline and ethanol and has performance
similar to gasoline vehicles. The biofuel can cost half the price of gasoline
depending on the outlet, though the actual volume of ethanol consumed is about
30 percent higher over the same distance because of its lower calorific value
of the fuel. As with flex cars, which all have a small gasoline reserve in the
engine bay to start up in cold weather, the Mix requires about 20 percent
gasoline in the tank in colder regions to make it easier to start said Murphy
(2009).

Motorcycle Taxi in Paris has
two versions; they can choose in between Maxi Scooter, very convenient or Honda
Goldwing, so called Limousine of the motorbike. Both motorcycle taxis can
positively impact the environment. Some of the advantages of it is that it
reduces fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, decrease accident rates and
controlling vehicle maintenance costs.

Subways serve as a
convenient mean of transportation, probably the most favored public
transportation in Korea. In 1970, Chang Kwan-man, the first Korean deputy prime
minister and Korea’s economic czar, was talking to President Park about the
current economic situation. He chose to use this opportunity to voice his
opinion on an important subject: “Mr. President, if we build a subway in Seoul,
the country will be ruined.” The first subway line, 9.54 km long, began at the
Seoul railway station. The line, now marked by a dark blue color, crossed the
city downtown area, to terminate at Cheongnyangni, another important railway
station. Interestingly enough, it roughly coincided with the first tram line
which in 1899 began the history of Seoul’s public transportation.

Right now subways are
currently available in five major cities including Seoul Metropolitan Area,
Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon. Seoul Metropolitan Area subway system rank
the top in terms of size and number as it centers the city from Line 1 to 9 with
additional lines, such as Sinbundang Line, Gyeongchun Line, Gyeongui Jungang
Line, Ever Line, Uisinseol Line, etc., branching throughout the metropolitan
area. In addition, the subway lines are color-coded for convenience, allowing
passengers to use the subway with ease.

Senora (2016) stated that
the technology that the Seoul Metro uses draws many subway planners and is a
big showpiece for Korea’s emphasis on IT .