THERMAL INSULATION

Thermal
insulation is the reduction of heat transfer. So, to prevent this we are
building our torus with metals and some fibers for protecting from UV rays. We
can protect our torus from asteroid by thermal insulation. There are four protection
layers in thermal insulation. The four layers are:-

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1.   
Zirconium

2.   
Carbon steel

3.   
Molybdenum

4.   
Fiber glass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 The thermal insulation depth
is 4.3. The first layer can protect up to 1.07. The second layer can protect up
to 1.05. The third layer can protect up to 1.15. The fourth layer can protect
up to 1.03.

                 The first layer is zirconium.
We can extract this metal from moon. The second layer is carbon. The third
layer is molybdenum and the fourth layer is fiber glass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FUEL

We
are creating raw materials from petroleum by using fractional distillation
method.

At
different temperatures we are making various components which are essential in
human life.

Firstly
we boiled the petroleum up to 600?c, we obtain fuel oil and
industrial boiler and we condense it up to 400?c. we obtain
lubricant oil, when freezes up to 270?c we obtain diesel oil and
diesel engine water and we cool it up to 170?c we obtain kerosene
oil, wick stove at 120?c we can obtain petrol, dry cleaning fluid
and heating torch, at 70?c we can obtain shoe polish and cleaning
solution and used in making chemicals and at last we freeze it to the
temperature of below 40?c we get fuel gas, liquefied petroleum gas,
fertilizers which are useful for agriculture and synthetic rubber. The rest of
residue we collected in another beaker to obtain asphalt with this we can get
paints, making match box, candle, and wash paper, Vaseline and some other
beauty products.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARTIFICAL GRAVITY

There
are so many methods to create artificial gravity in space by rotation, linear
acceleration and magnetism. By rotating the torus we can create and increase
the gravity and we can create by using centripetal force. Centripetal force is
act towards the center of required for any object to move in a circular pat. By
rotating also torus will provides the necessary centripetal force. Centripetal
force pushes towards the axis of rotation. This torus was rotating at certain
rate. The equation for the rate of rotation is:

                                                
? = 9.55?g/r

Where

1.    ?is rate of rotation in rpm.

2.    G is acceleration due to gravity.

3.    R is radius.

By
rotation, we can walk and do anything. Artificial gravity is need for the
effect of weightlessness on people.

 

Linear
Acceleration:-

This
acceleration at low level gives sufficient g – force. A spacecraft under
constant acceleration in straight line gives gravitational pull in direction
opposite of the acceleration. Constant linear acceleration is in addition to
provide artificial gravity is provides short times around solar system.
Propulsion system at high impulses could accelerate more and producing useful
levels of artificial gravity for long period. Electromagnetic propulsion can
provide linear acceleration gravity.

 

Magnetism:-

Effect
to gravity created through diamagnetism. It requires magnets with powerful
magnetic fields. These magnets require cryogenic to keep them super conductive.
It would involve avoid paramagnetic materials near to strong magnetic field
required for diamagnetism to be evident. Lower forces may be generated a
condition similar to lunar or Martian gravity with small model organisms.

 

Artificial
gravity generator was a device that created a stable field of gravity outside
of natural gravity well.

Diamagnetism:-

Diamagnetism
materials are repelled by a magnetic field. This applied magnetic field creates
an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction with a repulsive
fore. The magnetic permeability of diamagnetic materials is less than µ0,
the permeability of vacuum also. Diamagnetism is a quantum mechanical effect
that occurs in all materials. The superconductor acts as a strong diamagnetic
because it repels a magnetic field entirely from its interior. Diamagnetism is
a property of all materials and always makes a week contribution to the
materials. Indeed, all substances are Diamagnetism the strong external magnetic
field speeds up or slows down the electrons orbiting in atoms in such a way as
to oppose the action of the external field.

 

 

 

                       

 

                               Notable
diamagnetic materials

Materials

Xv(×10-5(SI UNITS))

Superconductor

?105

Pyro lytic carbon

?40.9

Bismuth

?16.6

Mercury

?2.9

Silver

?2.6

Carbon (diamond)

?2.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Gravity on residential torus:-

 r = 850m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v =
?gr 

 v = 91.2688337

g = v2/r = (91. 2688337)2/850
= 9.8m/s

 
Agriculture torus:-

 r = 420m

g = 9.8m/s

 v = 64.1560597

 g = v2/r = (64.1560597)2/420
= 9.79999m/s nearly 9.8m/s

 Industrial
toroids:-

 r = 360m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 59.19696969

 g = v2/r = (59.19696969)2/360
= 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 Main
cylinder:-

 
r = 120m

 
g = 9.8m/s

 
v = 34.292856

 
g = v2/r = (34.292856)2/120 = 9.8m/s

 Docking:- 

 r = 270m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 51.4392846

 g = v2/r = (51.4392846)2/270
= 9.8m/s

 Thrusters:-

 r = 240m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 48.4974226

g = v2/r = (48.4974226)2/240
= 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centripetal force

Ac = ?2r

 r = 850m

 ? = 2 ?r

     =
2×22/7×x/60

     =
22/7×x/15 = 11x/105

Ac = ?2r

     =
(11x/105)2×850

     =
9.328798185/16  = 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE

Agronomy refers to the word which
gives a complete meaning of agriculture. There are sustainable technics to
propagate crops.

The methods to propagate crops are:-

1.    Cultivating climbers crop

2.    Cultivating with less water

3.    Cultivating using hydroponic method

4.    Cultivating using aeroponics method 

Cultivating climber’s crop

The
main ascendancy (advantage) of propagating climbers is it will take less soil
for growing and it will spread across more area. Ex: Chinese Virginia creeper,
golden trumpet, wisteria sinensis etc.

 Cultivating with less water

We are propagating using less water by
using some efficient nutrients which take a vital role for cultivating plant
growth. We will fix copious (sufficient) aqua pure (water) for every individual
plant and we will drizzle (spray) guano (fertilizer) for every plant or crop.